DOKK Library
  Just what is
“Open Source”?
    (and why should I care)




  Jim Jagielski || @jimjag
       Who is this guy?
Jim Jagielski
    Longest still-active developer/contributor
    Co-founder of the Apache Software Foundation
    (ASF), Member, Director and President
    Director: Outercurve and Open Source Initiative
    (OSI)
    Consulting Engineer with Red Hat
    Council Member: MARSEC-XL


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What is Open Source?
Open Source Licensing
   OSI and/or Free Software Foundation (FSF)
   Approved
Free Software
   As in Free Speech, not Free Beer
Open Source Methodology (secondary)
   Community/Governance types
   Many consider this just as important as the license


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What is Open Source?
 Also called Free Software
 But the word “Free” confuses some people
     FOSS: Free and Open Source Software
     FLOSS: Free/Libre Open Source Software
 Pretty much, all mean the same thing
 The name can cause “religious” or “philosophical”
 debates, but in government and industry, Open
 Source is the more widely used term.


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What is Open Source?
Basic tenets:
   Access to the source code (the code is Open
   and Free)
   Ability to use the source code (run it and/or
   leverage it)
   Ability to modify the source code
   Ability to distribute the (modified) source code


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What is Open Source?
Basically, it’s a “new” way to develop, license and
distribute code
Actually, there was “open source” even before it
was called that
The key technologies behind the Internet and the
Web and the Cloud are all Open Source based
Brings Scientific Method to IT


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The draw of Open Source
                                   (hacker)
 Having a real impact in the development and
 direction of IT
 Personal satisfaction: I wrote that!
 Sense of membership in a community
 Sense of accomplishment - very quick turnaround
 times
 Developers and engineers love to tinker - huge
 opportunity to do so


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The draw of Open Source
                 (Companies/Orgs)

 Having a real impact in the development and
 direction of IT
 Sense of membership in a community (most of the time)
 Save on expensive resources
 Ability to focus on what differentiates yourself
 Allows for nimbleness and agility
 Increased revenue and market share


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The draw of Open Source
                                     (users)

 Access to the source code
 Avoid vendor lock-in (or worse!)
 Much better software
 Better security record (more eyes)
 Much more nimble development - frequent releases
 Direct user input
 Open Standards


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  Open Source                                                                    FUD ^



No quality or quality control
Prevents or slows development
Have to “give it away for free”
No real innovation


                                                                          ^:   Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt

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     True Open Source
For software to be Open Source, it must be under
an OSI or FSF approved Open Source License
Open Source Definition: http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd
Free Software Definition: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html
New Open Source licenses are very hard to get
approved
There are really 3 main types


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Licenses
Open Source Licenses
Give Me Credit
   AL (Apache License), BSD, MIT
Give Me Fixes
   LGPL (Lesser GPL), EPL (Eclipse Public
   License), MPL (Mozilla Public License)
Give Me Everything
   GPL (General Public License)
                                                        - Dave Johnson
                         http://rollerweblogger.org/page/roller?entry=gimme_credit_gimme_fixes_gimmem



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Give Me Credit




 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
       Give Me Credit
A liberal open source software license
Business friendly
Requires attribution
No warranty
Easily reused by other projects &
organizations (universal donor)
Legally, not complex

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       Give Me Credit

Community Impacts:
   Limited control by a single entity
   Little value in direct competition
   Used in widest variety of community types




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Give Me Fixes




This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
       Give Me Fixes

MPL / EPL / LGPL
  Used mostly with platforms or libraries
  Protects the licensed code, but allows
  larger derivative works with different
  licensing
  Still very business friendly


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        Give Me Fixes


Community Impacts:
   Easier single entity control
   Direct development/improvements of the
   code benefits all




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Give Me Everything




   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  Give Me Everything

GPL (copyleft)
   Derivative works also under GPL
   Linked works could also be under GPL
   Viral nature may likely limit adoption
   GPL trumps all others or else incompatible
   legally, most complex


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  Give Me Everything
Community Impacts:
   “Forces”/”enables” dual-license business
   strategy for copyright holder
   Encourages full free-software community
      Direct development/improvements of any
      uses of the code benefits all, but mostly the
      orig. author(s)
   Contributors guaranteed all code will be free


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  License Differences

Mainly involve the licensing of derivative works
Only really applies during (re)distribution of
work
Where the “freedom” should be mostly
focused: the user or the code itself



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     One True License
There is no such thing
Licensing is selected to address what you are
trying to do
In general, Open Standards do better with AL-
like license
If wide adoption is important to you: again AL.
To restrict non-shared enhancements: copyleft


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Governance/Community
           Community
AKA: Governance
  Defines how the community operates
  How conflicts are resolved
  Growth path of the community
     code
     members
  Again, 3 main types

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Governance Models
Walled Garden
   “All your base are belong to us.”
Benevolent Dictator
   “Supreme executive power derives
   from a mandate from the masses,
   not some farcical aquatic ceremony.”
Meritocratic Community
   “Out of Chaos comes Order.”


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Walled Garden




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          Walled Garden
Generally Licensed under copyleft-ish license (GPL)
Involvement in code is closed
Commit/patches limited to company employees
    Any accepted code has stringent assignments
    (copyright)
Code benefits mainly the corporate key-holders.
“Crowd-sourcing”
Final say in direction: not the coders but the owners.
    Example: Spring and Java (kinda)


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                    BDFL




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 Benevolent Dictator:
Licensed under All Open Source licenses
Involvement in code is open and based on merit.
    Easy to provide patches/code
Single Dictator or Dictator with Generals (depending on size
and complexity of the code)
Dictator (and Generals) non-aligned with corporate interests.
The community assigns power to Dictator who has final say if
needed
    Example: Think Linus and Linux.



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Meritocracy




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          Meritocracy
Generally Licensed under liberal license (AL)
Involvement in code is open and based on merit.
   Easiest model to provide code (simple, but
   complete, IP clearance: no assign copyright)
Clearly defined path based on merit
Collaboration and Community Consensus is critical
   Example: Think Apache Software Foundation.


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Community Building
Use Email Lists
Drive Consensus



   +1
No Poisonous People
Success Stories - HTTPD

 Apache HTTP Server (“Apache”)
   Reference implementation of HTTP
   Most popular web server in existence
   Found in numerous commercial web servers
      Oracle, IBM,...
   Influenced countless more


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Success Stories - HTTPD
 By having a “free” and open source reference
 implementation, the drive to create a separate
 proprietary version was reduced.
 “Why spend time and money, when we can use
 this”
 This allowed HTTP (and the Web) to grow and
 STAY usable (compare to the old browser wars)


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Success Stories - Linux
  Succeeded dramatically where UNIX and
  BSD did not.
  Rules the server and mobile market-space
  Variations serve as core of other devices as
  well (think marine!!)
  Numerous companies/entities are built
  around it and depend on it


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 Success Stories -
           MARSSA
True Open architecture in maritime industry
Ensures wide and deep interoperability
Revolutionary Open Source, Open
Standard implementation




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Concluding Thoughts

Open Source should have a viable business or
emotional reason - be realistic in expectations
Give some thought to licensing early
Make it easier for developers and users to
“join”
Give them a reason to


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Concluding Thoughts
Trust your developers AND your users
Communication is key
Open Source is NOT the Good Housekeeping
Seal Of Approval
But don’t believe in all the FUD either
Success is not measured in market share, but
in adoption

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         Helpful links
The Apache Software Foundation
   www.apache.org
Red Hat, Inc (my employer)
   www.redhat.com
Open Source Foundations
   www.opensource.org
   www.outercurve.org

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                       That’s It

Thank you!
Any questions?                                                                                   In Honor:
                                                                                            Joseph Jagielski, Jr.
   @jimjag
   jim@jaguNET.com / jimjag@gmail.com




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BACKUP CHARTS




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     Publish or Perish

In Open Source, frequent releases indicate
healthy activity
What is collaborative s/w development other
than peer review?
Think how restrictive research would be w/o
open communication



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Just what is "Open Source"? (and why should I care)

Authors Jim Jagielski

License CC-BY-3.0