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Comparative Research on Recent Trends, Designs, and Functionalities of Various Operating Systems

Authors Ankita Maiti Karen Pinto Prof. Tamil Priya D Roshni Thangavel

License CC-BY-4.0

Published by :                                                       International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                      ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                             Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

           Comparative Research on Recent Trends,
            Designs, and Functionalities of Various
                      Operating Systems
                     Roshni Thangavel                                                               Ankita Maiti
       Computer Science and Engineering (SCOPE)                                    Computer Science and Engineering (SCOPE)
            Vellore Institute of Technology                                             Vellore Institute of Technology
                     Vellore, India                                                              Vellore, India

                         Karen Pinto                                                            Prof. Tamil Priya D
       Computer Science and Engineering (SCOPE)                                      School Of Information Technology (SITE)
            Vellore Institute of Technology                                               Vellore Institute of Technology
                     Vellore, India                                                                Vellore, India

Abstract - This paper presents a comparative survey of three                operating systems is presented to facilitate ease of
well known operating systems which are Windows, Linux, and                  understanding. Within the many different types of operating
Macintosh. The basic criteria for studying them are mostly                  systems, the four main general types can be categorized into
focusing on the fundamental memory and file management,                     Real-Time Operating System(RTOS), Single-user single
architecture, security, versatility and other topics. These topics
are being compared in this paper. This research study gives us
                                                                            task, single-user multi-tasking, and multi-user.
an overview of the main topics and on the various similarities                 RTOS is used to control control machinery, scientific
and differences in the basic use of operating systems. Every                instruments and industrial systems. An RTOS typically has
operating system has its own set of differences in the                      very little userinterface capability, and no end-user utilities,
composition and structure of the operating system and this                  since the system will be a "sealed box" when delivered for
study focuses on the underlying strengths and weaknesses of                 use. [2] These types of systems are amazing at managing its
each operating system.                                                      resources so tasks can be performed in a timely manner.
                                                                               Single-user, single task systems are designed to let one
Keywords: Linux, Windows, Mac, UI, Architecture, File                       user use the system effectively. It is mainly used for
Management, Security
                                                                            handheld devices. Single-user, multi-tasking a single user to
                                                                            perform or run several programs at the same time. This is the
             I.      INTRODUCTION
                                                                            type of OS that is most allows commonly used in desktops
The operating system is a software which works as an
                                                                            and laptops. Windows and Mac OS are examples of this type
interface between a user of a computer and the computer
                                                                            of OS. [2]Multi-user operating system allows`multiple users
hardware system and also manages and coordinates the use
                                                                            to use the resources simultaneously in a balanced way. It
of hardware among various applications and users [1]. It is
                                                                            makes sure there are sufficient resources as to not cause
a collection of software that helps in managing hardware
                                                                            trouble to any of the active users. Examples of multi-user OS
resources and provides common services for computer
                                                                            includes UNIX, VMS and mainframe OS.
programs. It is one of the most essential parts of the
                                                                               Linux OS is a very popular operating system that is being
computer. The five major activities of an operating system
                                                                            used all over the world for not only personal use, but also
are Process creation, Processing state, Process
                                                                            used majorly in supercomputers and data centers. It has
synchronization, Process communication and Deadlock
                                                                            replaced Windows and Mac OS due to its numerous
prevention. Applications require an operating system (OS)
                                                                            advantages in security and versatility of OS. Anyone can
to perform and the computer itself needs OS to maintain the
                                                                            use and modify the system to their liking and a large number
security of the system and for creating a GUI/CLI base for
                                                                            of distributions (distros) run on this kernel.[3]
the user to access and perform tasks on the computer. There
                                                                               Windows is an operating system which was developed by
are many software functions that depend on OS such as cost
                                                                            Microsoft and it’s first version came up on November
allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing etc,
                                                                            20,1985.[4] It is based on the Disk Operating System(DOS)
while hardware functions such as input and output of
                                                                            which is well known for it’s black screen and command line.
memory allocation system calls etc need the OS as well. In
                                                                            After the release of Windows 95, Windows started
this paper we look at three different types of OS and all their
                                                                            dominating the market. This was because Windows 95 was
components and features (Linux, Windows, and Macintosh).
                                                                            the first one to have Graphical User Interface(GUI) in its
We compare them based on several features like booting
                                                                            front and DOS in back.This was indeed a revolution for a
process, user interface information, handling system
                                                                            non-computer person.
resources, file management, device management, security,
                                                                               Mac operating system was developed by the apple in 1984
versatility, efficiency, architecture, reliability, cost, choice
                                                                            by the Apple Inc[5]. Macintosh computers used the
etc. After every feature one tabular comparison of three

IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                                 437
                       (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
 Published by :                                                        International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                       ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                               Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

 Motorola PowerPC Chip which is set with an advanced
 architecture enhanced for graphics and multimedia interface
 and usability. Macintosh OSs was strictly GUI
 environments, with no command-line option. Since 2005 the
 Apple Mac line of computers are Intel-based, but the Mac
 OS is only licensed to run on an Apple Mac which is the first
 multitasking operating system. Mac OS X, with its UNIX
 origins, gives us the option of a character-based interface
 Apple Computers is the only manufacturer of Macintosh
 computers. Transferring files and applications from old Mac
 to a new one is a more efficient process when the computer
 is to migrating from one windows PC to another. Apple’s
 Mac operating system has some powerful productivity and
 multimedia apps that are preinstalled.

                                                                                         Fig. 1. BOOTING PROCESS OF LINUX OS
  Linux                  Windows                Mac Os
                                                                                 WINDOWS - Booting process begins when the computer
                                                                              is turned on, which is called a cold boot. On switching on
                                                                              the computer, it performs a Power On Self Test(POST)..
  Released in 1991 in    Released in 1985       It is the oldest out
  Finnish University.    and was supposed       of the three and              MBR is looked for in the bootable device. Now boot sector
  Mainly designed        to be a Graphical      was released in               and BOOTMGR is located through the MBR. BOOTMGR
  for           GNU      User                   1984. From the                searches for active partition and reads the BCD file from the
  developers. Later it   Interface(GUI) on      beginning, it was a           boot directory on the active partition.Drivers are loaded by
  was integrated to      top of MS-DOS.         Graphical      User
  Linux.                 Later with the         Interface (GUI).              winloader and are set to start at boot and then control is
                         release           of   Later in 2005, its            transferred to windows kernel. The step by step process is
                         Windows          95    design           and          shown below in figure 2.
                         version all features   architecture were
                         were     integrated.   changed to Intel
                         This was kind of a     x86           based
                         revolution in the      architecture.[9]

A. Booting Process
   It is the first step that takes place when we switch on a
 computer or it is a process to start a computer. It can be done
 by both hardware(by pressing start button) and software ( by
 command) means.
   LINUX - The booting process takes place in six steps. First
                                                                                       Fig. 2. BOOTING PROCESS OF WINDOWS OS
 the MBR (Master Boot Record) is executed by the basic
 Input/Output system. Then the Grand Unified
 Bootloader(GRB) is executed by the MBR. Then the kernel                         MAC - Here, when the power is switched on, the OF or
 gets executed by GRB. Then /sbin /init are executed by                       EFI code is executed. Then all information about hardware
 kernel. After this, runlevel programs are executed by Init and               is collected and it is initialized. Now control passes to the
 these run level programs are executed from /etc /rc.d /rc*.d                 boot loader.[2] The kernel is loaded by BOOTX and also OS
 as shown in Figure 1 below.                                                  badges are drawn if any. Now the execution of the routine
                                                                              kernel takes place. The root device of the booting system is
                                                                              identified and at this point Firmware is not accessible any
                                                                              more. Now the initialization of the I/O kit takes place after
                                                                              which the kernel starts as seen below in figure 3.

 IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                               438
                           (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
 Published by :                                                  International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                 ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                         Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

                                                                          MAC OS - The graphical user interface and visual theme
                                                                        of Apple’s Mac OS is “AQUA”. It’s original theme was
                                                                        ‘water’,, with droplet-like components and the concepts of
                                                                        reflection and translucency were used. Its aim is to
                                                                        "inculcate colour, depth and complex textures into a visually
                                                                        appealing interface" in macOS applications.The image
                                                                        below in Figure 5 shows the different UIs for the three
                                                                        operating systems and how they compare with each other.
                                                                        Clearly all three have their own looks and give users a
                                                                        comfortable user experience.

             Fig. 3. BOOTING PROCESS OF MAC OS


                                                                        Fig. 4. USER INTERFACE OF LINUX, MAC, WINDOWS (LEFT TO

                                                                      C. Handling System Resources
                                                                          Monitoring system resources like memory,mass storage,
                                                                       network access, processor part is a necessary part of
                                                                          LINUX - The ‘TOP’ command in Linux helps in
                                                                       monitoring programs which is used often by many
                                                                       administrators to monitor system performance. This
                                                                       command is used to keep a list of running and active real-
   As seen in table 2, all three operating systems have the            time processes and this list is updated regularly. It helps to
 same POST step in common. This experiment also shows                  display CPU usage, Memory usage, Swap memory, Cache
 that out of the three OS, Mac is the only operating system            size, Buffer size, Process pid, User, commands etc. Then the
 which does not support BIOS and instead uses BootROM                  command ‘Vmstat’ shows details about virtual memory,
 where it has a boot loader called BootX or Boot.efi. [2]              system processes, disks, I/O blocks, interrupts, CPU activity
                                                                       etc. The command ‘lsof’ is used to display a list of all
B. User Interface Info                                                 processes and open files.
    A user interface is that part of an operating system that             WINDOWS - In Windows, a program makes a request to
 allows users to enter and modify information. In other                the operating system whenever it needs any hardware
 words, it acts as a medium of communication between the               resources. Windows then responds to the request by
 users and operating system                                            providing the required software. The easiest way to monitor
    LINUX - In Linux you have the option to use both GUI               resources in Windows is to open the Task Manager window
 and CLI. Although CLI seems superior to the GUI, it is not            on the Performance Tab as seen in figure 6 below. The
 true. CLI can never be used for editing videos and the user           shortcut to open this window is Ctrl+Shift+Esc. Here we get
 is far more likely to use a graphical audio player to set up          to see CPU and memory usage.
 playlists for example. Image editing also clearly requires a
 graphical user interface.
    WINDOWS- The Graphical User Interface(GUI) is an
 integral component of Windows, so it is not replaceable.
 There is also command shell program(cmd) that can directly
 run. The name itself suggests that programs are run in
 separate “windows”. Each program is run in a particular
 window, that’s why we can have several programs running
 at the same time.This is the most popular operating system
 for home computers. The latest version of Windows is
 Windows 10.[6].

 IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                         439
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 Published by :                                                    International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                   ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                           Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

                                                                          how a file can be named in terms of the length and character
                                                                          combinations. It also includes the organizational framework
                                                                          which is the logical structure of the files on disk, often
                                                                          arranged in a hierarchical form using directories.

                                                                             WINDOWS- The job of file management is done by
                                                                          ‘Windows Explorer’ in Windows.[7] It shows a list of files,
                                                                          folders and storage drives on our computer. For eg- when a
                                                                          file has to be copied, we open the desired folder which has
                                                                          the file to be copied or moved and then drag and drop the
                                                                          file to target folder or drive. Windows explorer can be
                                                                          opened by the following steps:-
                                                                               1. Start-> all programs-> accessories-> Windows
                                                                             MAC OS - We use the ‘FINDER’ to organize and manage
                                                                          our files. Finder, in association with apps like Automator can
                                                                          help users locate documents, search files, manage folders
                                                                          and organize them.The shortcut to opening Finder is
           Fig. 5. TASK MANAGER FOR WINDOWS OS                            simultaneously pressing the “Command” and “N” keys.
                                                                          MacOs has APFS(Apple File System) as its proprietary file
    MAC OS - In Mac OS, we have ‘Activity Monitor’ which                  system. The Apple File System is primarily focused on
 shows the processes running on our system. By this we can                encryption along with optimized flash and solid-state drive
 manage resources and see how we can evaluate Mac’s                       storage. It uses 64-bit inode numbers. The APFS uses
 activity and performance. We can either find it through                  commands like TRIM for better space management and
 ‘Spotlight’ or open from the Utilities folder of Application             performance. TO ensure Data Integrity for metadata, Apple
 as seen in figure 7 below. Activity Monitor shows processes              File System uses checksums.
 like user apps, system apps used by Mac OS or background                    The different operating systems are being compared
 processes which are invisible.                                           below in Table 3 with different types of file systems.[6]

                                                                           TABLE III. COMPARING FILE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
                                                                                 (BOLD - DEFAULT FILE SYSTEMS)

                                                                              File System     Windows         Linux       MAC OS

                                                                              FAT, exFAT      Supported      Supported    Supported

                                                                                 UDF          Supported      Supported    Supported

                                                                               ISO 9660       Supported      Supported    Supported

                                                                              HFS+ , HFS     Supported via   Supported    Supported

             Fig. 6. ACTIVITY MONITOR IN MAC OS                                ext2, ext3,   Supported via   Supported    Supported
                                                                                  ext4         3rd-party                 via 3rd-party
D. File Management                                                                              drivers                      apps
    File management is one of the most basic but important                       NTFS         Supported      Supported    Supported
 features found in operating system. It manages different                                                                 Read Only
 types of files with various extensions. It can create, update
 and delete files
                                                                            E.      Device Management
    LINUX - Linux file systems refer to how linux based
                                                                            It is the act of coordinating between devices of a computer
 computers organize, store and track system files. The File
                                                                          by device drivers and device controllers. It is used in
 system is basically a combination of directories or folder that
                                                                          managing hardware, storage and input and output devices. It
 serves as a placeholder for addresses of other files. In other
                                                                          keeps track of status of all devices connected to a computer.
 words, there is no distinction between a file and a directory
                                                                            LINUX - There are very few devices that are compatible
 in Linux file system, because a directory is considered to be
                                                                          with Linux OS still. However for the hardware devices that
 a file having names of other files. Hence, software programs,
                                                                          are compatible but the ones that are supported work on all
 services, texts, images and so forth are all considered files.
                                                                          versions of linux. Linux is also a very developer friendly OS
 In the same way, input and output devices are considered to
                                                                          that allows developers all around the world to add on to its
 be files according to the file system. It also provides the
                                                                          database. Due to its low cost and ability to easily customize,
 namespace which comprises the naming convention as to

 IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                               440
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Published by :                                                   International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                  ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                         Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

linux is often used in non-mobile telecommunication                       iv) On the second Customise Settings screen leave Use
networks. Most customer premises equipments and                         SmartScreen online service to help protect against malicious
embedded systems use linux as well.                                     content and downloads in sites loaded by Windows browsers
   WINDOWS - Device management is a Control Panel                       and Store apps activated as it will enhance security. For the
applet in Windows Os which allows users to view and                     remaining options click ‘on’ to change them to ‘off’.
control the hardware attached to the computer. It provides a              v) Then we have to continue with Windows installation.
way to uniformly notify all apps and system features that                 MAC OS - MAC operating system is very unique
may affect their operation or access to resources. It also              compared to the rest as they are specifically designed for
allows us to update and reinstall drivers for individual                Apple devices. There is no third-party developer. As a result,
devices.                                                                MAC has a strong shield around it that protects the OS from
   MAC OS - Apple devices are not only able to safely access            malwares and viruses. Along with this, MAC also supports
network services due to its multi-layered secured foundation            the user acknowledgement while executing any files. Apple
but also protect important data. iOS and macOS, through the             regularly releases update for Mac OS to enhance the
mobile device management (MDM) solution follow a policy                 security.
of passcode and password thereby guaranteeing security. By
chance an Apple device falls into the wrong hands, with the           G. Versatility
help of a user or an administrator a remote command can be                An operating system that is versatile allows the user to run
used to erase all private information. A secure computing              multiple programs, and complete different types of work at
platform for Apple devices can be achieved through the                 the same time. It allows the user to change and modify the
following:                                                             system to their liking.
   i) Methods are adopted to that prevent the unauthorized                LINUX - The biggest advantage when it comes to Linux is
use of devices                                                         the ability for the user to change the distribution to the way
   ii) Protection of data at rest,when the device is stolen or         they are comfortable with, especially on the desktop.[9] The
even lost.                                                             OS is easy to use and allows the user to customize to their
   iii) Following networking protocols and encrypting data             liking and comfortability since the operating system is open
during transmission                                                    source. The majority of linux distributions are flexible
   iv) Apps run securely without having to compromise its              enough to run on many devices (including mobile phones)
platform integrity.                                                    and are reliable enough for critical systems. Linux
   These capabilities work together to provide a secure                distributions come with an advance package management
computing platform.                                                    system that allows users complete control of their system.
   F.      Security                                                       WINDOWS- Windows has developed a lot since 1985,
   It is the process of implementing mechanisms to protect             when it was installed. It supports a wide range of activities.
an OS externally as well as internally. This is mainly done            The latest version of Windows 10 has been redesigned to
by ensuring integrity, confidentiality and availability in the         protect data from security threats. Windows Hello, an access
operating system.                                                      control feature , is a password-free sign-in service that gives
   LINUX - Although Linux OS is well known for having                  users hassle-free access to their devices.[10] Several new
better security than other operating systems, since most               security features have been installed like fingerprint, face-
distributions are created with privacy, information security,          unlock etc. It also includes Device Guard to safeguard
and anonymity in mind, they are still vulnerable to some               intellectual property. Recently, new features like Windows
attacks. Similar to the risks that most computers face, Linux          Ink, Windows Edge and Cortana have been installed in
OS is still vulnerable to viruses that can be downloaded from          Windows 10. The various versions of Windows 10 are :-
the internet. This can be prevented by basic security                     i) Windows Pro
including scanning for viruses, using firewalls and setting up            ii) Windows home
file permissions.[6] Since linux is also an open source                   iii) Windows enterprise
platform, new features and security patches are released                  iv) Windows education [9]
frequently that allows the user to maintain its security.                 MAC OS - Many Mac users believe that MacOS is easier
   WINDOWS- Microsoft Windows is the world’s most                      to install and update, offers faster updates with less hassle,
popular consumer operating system and this is why it is so             and allows applications to be installed and managed with
popular. It is used as a standard in many office                       greater ease. MacOS also comes with a deep range of
environments. But at the same time, this popularity makes it           applications for free, including the music composition tool
a target for malware. Windows is a closed source operating             GarageBand, video editing application iMovie, and a
system where the users or security community doesn’t have              complete productivity package consisting of Pages (word
access to the source code.[8] So while installing Windows ,            processing and layout), Numbers (spreadsheet), and
we can select privacy protecting options:-                             Keynote (presentations).[11] The MacOS Preview app
    i) While installing Windows, we have to accept ‘Express            provides a wide range of features, including editing PDFs.
settings’ or we can simply click on Customize settings.               H. Efficiency
   ii) Then on the first Customize settings, we have to turn           An efficient Operating system allows the computer system
on all the settings.                                                   resources to be used efficiently which increases the
   iii) Click on ‘NEXT’ to go to next customize settings               processing speed of the computer.

IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                           441
                       (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
     Published by :                                                  International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                 ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                             Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

    LINUX - Linux OS is one of the fastest and most effective
 systems that is out in the real world right now. It is especially
 useful for older computer that can not support more intense
 Operating systems such as Microsoft and Mac. It helps older
 computers get back up to speed and gets them running
 smoothly again. Compared to Microsoft, Linux OS even
 consumes less RAM.[12] Since linux does not come with
 extras such as animations and other extra features, Linux
 OS can perform well in a system with just 2 GB of RAM
 while Windows might require 4GB of RAM. A linux system
 can also be made more efficient by disabling the graphical
 user interface (GUI). Unlike most other operating systems,
 Linux does not require a GUI. Almost everything can be
 done using command line interface (CLI). This process
 saves CPU cycles and memory.
    WINDOWS - As new versions of windows came up,
 users started liking them. People liked Windows 7 because
 of its easy installation, cash-free nature, fabulous graphics                       Fig. 7. CONCEPTUAL LINUX ARCHITECTURE
 support for HQ games, better UI and also best security.
 Recently, after Windows 10 came up, people liked it more
 because of its fast nature, reliability, takes responsibility of
 our every move . It’s worth every penny because of its
 design, features, speed, accuracy, privacy and security. It
 contains so many new features. So as a whole every version
 of Windows OS has been fully efficient and has satisfied the
    MAC OS - OS X Mavericks introduces powerful new
 technologies for energy efficiency.Mac Hardware are so
 designed to be capable of energy-saving with optimizations
 at every level of the operating system, right from the kernel
 and application frameworks to the built-in applications you
 use every day.[13] Mac OS X is based on Darwin, it which
 uses a kernel called XNU which has a hybrid characteristics
 and was created by a combination of a 4.3BSD kernel and
 the Mach kernel. On the other hand, Windows has its own
 Windows NT Kernel. A general overview can say that Mac                            Fig. 8. CONCRETE ARCHITECTURE OF LINUX OS
 OS X uses a more sturdy kernel compared to Windows.
 Moreover, Mac experience is about using it right away.                        As seen in figures 8 and 9, the concrete architecture has
                                                                            the same subsystems but the dependency relations are very
I.   Architecture                                                           different. Conceptual architecture has relatively fewer
   The interface between a computer’s hardware and its                      dependencies between top level systems (around 19) while
 software is its architecture. The architecture is described by             concrete architecture is almost fully connected (almost 37
 what the computer’s instructions do, and how they are                      out of 42 inter subsystem dependencies). [15]
 specified.                                                                   WINDOWS- The several blocks of Windows OS are :-- i)
   LINUX - Originally developed for Intel's x86 hardware,                   Process refers to a running program in execution. ii)
 there are ports available for over two dozen CPU types                     Executable binary: It comprises the initial code and data to
 including ARM.[14] The linux OS architecture has one of                    execute code within process. iii)Private virtual address
 the Highest level of abstractions. There are three main levels             space: Used as allocating memory for code within process
 of architecture including Conceptual, concrete and file                    on requirement basis. iv) Primary token: This object stores
 system. The conceptual architecture as seen in Figure 8,                   multiple details regarding default security context of process
 shows the way the developers think about the linux OS while                and used as reference by threads within the process. v)
 the concrete architecture as seen in Figure 9 shows the actual             Private handle table: Table used for managing executive
 architecture of the operating system.                                      objects such as events, semaphores and files. vi) Thread(s)
                                                                            for process execution. Processes are identified by unique
                                                                            process id. This ID remains constant till respective kernel
                                                                            process object exists. Now it’s important to note that every
                                                                            running instance of same binary will get separate process
                                                                            and process id. vii)Virtual memory - The OS provides
                                                                            separate private linear virtual address space to every process
                                                                            which is used by processes to allocate memory to

     IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                          442
                            (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :                                                    International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                   ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                          Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

executables, threads, DLL’s etc. [16] This architecture can                         4.        The topmost layer called Aqua, is the user
be seen below in Figure 10.                                                       interface. It provides visual features as well as the
                                                                                  tools to customize the user interface as per the
                                                                                  requirements of the user. This architecture can be
                                                                                  seen below in figure 11. Table 4 below compares the
                                                                                  three different architectures with different
                                                                                  architectures that it supports.[5]


 MAC operating system developed by Apple Inc. Mac OS
X launched in 2001 is the tenth version of Mac OS. The
multiple layers of Mac OS X are given below:
    1. The base layer of the system is the Unix core called
                                                                                       Fig 10. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF MAC OS X
 the Darwini.[17] The Darwin core supports features such                                           ARCHITECTURE
 as protected memory, preemptive multitasking, automatic
 memory management, advanced virtual memory, power                       TABLE IV. COMPARING ARCHITECTURE SUPPORT
 management. etc. It also provides the I/O services for
                                                                            Architecture       Linux         Windows        MAC OS
 Mac OS X and supports hot-swapping and plug-and-play.
    2. Next layer is the graphics system which contains                          x86         Supported       Supported      Supported
 Quartz, OpenGL and QuickTime.
   ● Quartz is responsible for the 2-D graphics in the                          x86-64       Supported       Supported      Supported
      graphics subsystem. It provides interface graphics,
                                                                               PowerPC       Supported     Not Supported    Supported
      fonts, renders images etc.
   ● OpenGL supports the 3-D graphics in the system such                        ARM          Supported     Supported via    Supported
      as transparency, texture mapping, special effects                                                    Windows NT
      antialiasing, atmospheric effects, etc. As a fact, even
      Unix and Windows System uses the same.[18]
                                                                       J.    Reliability
   ● QuickTime is used in the different digital media such
                                                                            Reliability of a computer is a measure of how consistently
      as video streaming, digital video, audio etc. It also
                                                                         it performs according to its specifications. It is one of the
      supports creative applications such as iMovie, iTunes
                                                                         main attributes that must be considered when making,
                                                                         buying, or using a computer product or component.
     3. Then is the application layer which comprises of
                                                                            LINUX - The majority of Linux variants and versions are
   four components, namely Classic, Carbon, Cocoa and
                                                                         notoriously reliable and can often run for months and years
                                                                         without needing to be rebooted. It powers about 99% of the
   ● The classic environment makes sure that
                                                                         top 500 supercomputers and they are usually the servers of
        applications run smoothly when written for the
                                                                         many major websites (eg Google, Facebook, etc).
        previous versions of the operating system.
                                                                            WINDOWS- According to statistical data, Windows has
   ● The carbon environment is used to transfer the
                                                                         become much more reliable than it used to be.[19] But still
        existing applications to carbon application program
                                                                         Windows suffers from BSOD crashes and Linux can still be
        interfaces. This is called carbonising the application.
                                                                         crashed by simply plugging a peripheral that its does not
   ● The cocoa environment provides the Mac OS X
                                                                         recognize so they are not perfectly reliable, despite years of
        structure with an object-oriented application
                                                                         improvement. Both are less reliable to Mac OS.
        development environment.
                                                                            MAC OS - Mac Computers are designed from scratch by
   ● The Java applications applets are run using the Java
                                                                                1. The production line is taken care of from the
                                                                              beginning to the ending.

IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                             443
                       (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
 Published by :                                                    International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                   ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                           Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

         2. Apple devices are made incredibly stable as every                LINUX - Most Linux distros can be freely downloaded and
      component of the device is tested and assembled to                  legally installed on as many computers as you want. Because
      work properly.                                                      most distros are open source, you have access to the source
         3. Many of the softwares are not compatible with                 code and can customize Linux to be whatever you want it to
      MAC OS which makes it much Reliable And Smooth                      be; you can even create your own distro if you like. [3] Linux
      because it has no Virus.[20]                                        provides more choice in your OS than the other two
    K. Cost                                                               operating systems. The user gets a freedom of choice within
    The cost of an operating system is how much it might cost             linux itself when they choose their version of distribution in
 the average consumer to buy and use that operating system.               Linux OS (Red Hat, SuSE, Mandrake, etc.).[22] Linux OS
    LINUX - There is no comparing Windows to Linux when                   allows you the freedom to choose between the smallest of
 it comes to money. Linux is a well known open source                     things to the most significant features such as the packages
 platform while windows and mac are very expensive. Linux                 you want to be installed on the computer, how the user wants
 can be freely distributed freely through books, magazines                the hard drive to be partitioned to even the UI that you want
 etc, and downloaded freely and legally. Although there are               (GUI vs CLI).
 linux distributions that the user has to pay for, it is still               WINDOWS- Although windows is a very user friendly
 normally cheaper than windows. It is free , so anyone can                OS, it doesn’t not allow for users to customize the OS as
 download it and use it.                                                  freely. The only choice users have are the day to day settings
    WINDOWS- Windows is not cheaper than Linux. This is                   of the Computer as well as the choice of applications they
 because Linux is not a full operating system. It’s only the              choose to interact with. The Windows OS source code is not
 kernel, the central part of the operating system, without                open source therefore it is not easily customizable by
 which computer can’t run programs or use devices such as                 everyone.
 hard disks. Microsoft Windows, on the other hand, is a                      MAC OS - Mac OS has a very easy to use interface that
 proprietary ‘closed’ source software package that has its                allows the users to navigate with ease. Like linux, mac is
 own kernel and software to present a user interface. Creating            also open source now allowing users to customize their OS.
 and supporting an Operating System for every modern CPU                  It allows users to create their own apps with ease and lets
 or piece of computer hardware takes considerable effort and              them customize their desktop to their liking.[23]
 Microsoft therefore charges for this: it’s a business with
 employees and shareholders after all. Free and Open Source
 Software relies on the efforts of individuals doing this work
 for the challenge, fame or glory. It is expensive and its cost
 starts from $100.
    MAC OS - Apple computers are way too expensive than
 some PCs, but are worth the amount when considering the
 value we receive for our money.[21] Macs get software
 updates on a regular basis which makes them more valuable
 and capable over time.Even vintage Macs are kept safe
 through bug fixes and patches available on the older versions
 of MacOS. Lastly, it’s very hard to argue against its aesthetic
 value. Usually users love the way something looks than how
 it works. It’s the most expensive compared to Windows and
 Linux as the user has to buy a whole Mac system built by
 Apple. Figure 11 below compares the average cost of all                   Fig. 12. WORLDWIDE SERVER OPERATING SYSTEMS MARKET
 three types of operating system.[6]

L. Choice
 Choice in an operating system allows the user to customize                      FIGURE 13. COMPARISON ON VARIOUS FACTORS
 and change the OS to their liking.

 IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                            444
                        (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :                                                               International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)                                                                                                              ISSN: 2278-0181
                                                                                                                     Vol. 8 Issue 10, October-2019

  Clearly, Windows is dominant over Linux and Mac Os as                               [17] W. Chengjun, "The analyses of Operating System structure." pp.
                                                                                           354- 357.
90% of the users prefer Windows as seen in figure 12 and
                                                                                      [18] S. Beyer, R. Taylor, and K. Mayes, "Operating system support for
13.[6] Linux is the least used operating system with 1% of                                 dynamic code loading in sensor networks." pp. 5 pp.-315
users percentage. Mac is quite popular with 7% of user bases                          [19] L. Hongjuan, and L. Yuqing, "A Design of Trusted Operating
over the world.[24] As Windows has the largest number of                                   System Based on Linux." pp. 4598-4601.
                                                                                      [20] G. Martinovic, J. Balen, and S. Rimac-Drlje, "Impact of the host
people using it, it is most likely to be affected by malware.
                                                                                           operating systems on virtual machine performance." pp. 613-618.
Linux and Mac has the minimum chances to be affected by                               [21] H.-Y. Zhou, and K.-m. Hou, "LIMOS: A lightweight multi-
malware.                                                                                   threading operating system dedicated to wireless sensor networks."
                   III. CONCLUSIONS                                                        pp. 3051-3054.
                                                                                      [22] W. Liu, X. Li, W. Huang et al., "OSISS: An operating system
   Thus operating system acts as an interface between users
                                                                                           integrity surveillance system based on VMM." pp. 546-549.
and computer hardware. In this paper, we have compared                                [23] S. Cahya, "Designing Operating System Simulator: A Learning
operating systems like Linux, Windows, Mac OS on the                                       Tool." pp. 156-160.
basis of certain features. Result of our comparison is that
none of them are bad. Each one has their own advantages
and disadvantages. Our target is to give an overview to users,
which can help them choose an operating system that fits
their needs.[8]

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IJERTV8IS100232                                                                                                                 445
                           (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)