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Creative Commons Newsletter No.10


License CC-BY-3.0

Share, Reuse, Remix —

                             N      E       W   S   L   E   T   T   E R   Issue No. 10                       December 2008
                                                                                                                    A lex R ob er t s. “M elis sa
                                                                                                                    Reeder.” CC-BY 3.0

                                                              Dear Creative Commoner,

                                                              This month’s newsletter focuses on ccLearn, CC’s “newest” project
                                                              (even though it’s almost 2 years old) dedicated to championing the CC
                                                              infrastructure within education, followed by brief updates from the people
                                                              on the front lines of Science Commons, Creative Commons International
                                                              (CCi), Culture Commons, and CC Core. Education as we know it is
CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                                              evolving, and as it changes we need to make sure that it remains open and
                                                              free and interoperable. ccLearn was made possible thanks to the generosity
                                                              of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, one of the leaders in open
                                                              educational resources (OER). I don’t want to say too much though; I don’t
                                                              want to spoil what is explained so eloquently below.

                                                              Over the past 8 months I’ve brought you information about CCi, Science
                                                              Commons, Culture Commons, CC Core (Development), and now
                                                              ccLearn. All of these projects have one thing in common—the CC “Core”
                                                              infrastructure (legal, technology, and operations). As you probably know,
                                                              we’re in the middle of our annual fundraiser. We need to raise $500,000
                                                              by December 31st and we have $260,000 left to go. If you’ve already
                                                              given to the campaign—THANK YOU. Your support is more appreciated
                                                              than you know. But you can still help. Tell your friends and family about
2                                                             CC and encourage them to give. Blog about the campaign and encourage
                                                              your readers to participate. Spread the word about CC and our need for
                                                              support as far and wide as humanly possible. By supporting CC you will be
                                                              sustaining this vital infrastructure.

                                                              As you read, you will notice the difference between this newsletter and past
                                                              editions. We’re experimenting with a new format, which I think is more
                                                              informative and effective, and would like to hear what you think. We here at
                                                              CC are open to community feedback and suggestions. We’re writing this so
                                                              you have an easy alternative way to stay informed; please let us know what
                                                              you think by emailing

                                                              Melissa Reeder
                                                              Development Manager

                               This newsletter is licensed
                               under    http://creativecom-
                                 — please share and remix!

ccLearn                            Ahrash Bissel, Executive Director, ccLearn
What does the future of education look like?              built on a pool of open educational resources (OER)
                                                          which are available for anyone to use and adapt as
• Compelling lessons on the history of human              they see fit.
  migration available, for free, in eighty different
  languages.                                              But the stories described above do not yet happen so
                                                          easily... Even if appropriate hardware and Internet
• Free multimedia presentations on the chemistry of       access are available, we already know that just
  volcanoes enthralling children all over the United      because something can be shared online does not
  States, whether or not they are actually in school.     make it legal to do so. Many people have suffered the
                                                          consequences of this mismatch when they have tried
• Health care instructors in Africa, Europe, and          to share music online, for example. In education, the
  elsewhere collaborating virtually to adapt medical      challenge is to build a truly global learning commons,
  school curricula to the specific needs of their         which requires a great degree of standardization or
  students, improving both the quality and relevance      harmonization at the legal, technical, and social
  of instruction in their own countries.                  levels. In addition, there are many concerns specific                       3
                                                          to education, such as adherence to state-level
What makes these visions of the future possible?          standards, attention to quality-control mechanisms,
Open licensing.                                           and facilitation of local creation and adaptation of
We already know that Creative Commons makes it

                                                                                                                   CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10
possible for people to share their works with the world   These varied and complex concerns are the context
under generous terms – to allow copies, translations,     in which ccLearn, the education division of Creative
remixes, and other adaptations to be made and             Commons, was founded just over one year ago.
distributed freely. For authors, photographers,           ccLearn is dedicated to supporting the growth and
musicians, artists, and other creators, Creative          impact of open learning and open educational
Commons licenses have transformed the working             resources. Our mission is to minimize barriers to
landscape and galvanized creative communities             the creation, sharing, and reuse of educational
worldwide.                                                materials—legal barriers, technical barriers, and
                                                          social barriers.
But what about communities where sharing is already
standard practice? What about in education, where         How we are overcoming these barriers—
the materials and insights produced by teachers
and curriculum developers are usually intended to                 License Mapping Report
be adapted as needed to foster the best learning                  Legal barriers include the use of restrictive
experiences possible? Here, it would seem that the                or incompatible licenses, which hinder the
rights granted by Creative Commons – rights to share,             ability to access, modify, and share content
adapt, and improve educational resources – are well-              in educational settings. We are analyzing the
matched by community practices that have existed for              licensing “landscape” for open education, to
a long time. And indeed, this is so – most educators              be released as a report to the global open
around the world agree that their primary intent in               education community. The goal is to provide
creating teaching and learning resources is for them              objective data about the extent to which
to have a positive impact on student learning, and                license proliferation is actually a problem,
they therefore tend to share those resources freely               and also insights into the extent to which the
with their colleagues. This culture of sharing that               learning commons we are trying to build is
already pervades the educational domain has given                 fractured by incompatible licensing policies.
rise to a movement – the open education movement
– which seeks to realize a global learning commons,
                               Universal Education Search                                  excellent progress on many fronts. We are
                               Technical barriers focus on the fact that                   near completion on several projects and have
                               open educational resources must be easy to                  laid the groundwork for significant advances
                               find and access in order to be useful. For                  in other areas. On a personal level, I have
                               instance, many OER repositories were built in               been amazed at the passion, drive, and
                               such a way that their content is inaccessible               competence of this global community, which
                               or difficult to use. ccLearn is benefiting                  is growing every day. We all share a vision
                               from the amazing engineering work of                        of a future where educational opportunities
                               the Creative Commons team by providing                      are not limited by place, time, circumstances
                               leadership on technical standards and                       of birth, or even by technologies. Clearly, we
                               architectures that have the potential to solve              are some distance yet from achieving this
                               these problems. Specifically, we are helping                vision, but already there is good evidence
                               people to understand how the semantic web,                  that existing inequities in educational access
                               through RDFa (and ccREL) mark-up, enables                   and quality are eroding. It’s definitely an
                               the pool of OER to grow organically and to                  exciting time.
CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                               retain the site-specific properties that make
                               them valuable and educationally relevant.           Open Education Highlights from around
                               This work stands in contrast to most efforts        the Globe
                               in this area, which either seek to create a         The OER movement is a global movement. Education
                               global centralized repository or a semblance        is an issue that crosses borders and spans continents;
                               of one through direct integration of existing       open education—the creation and distribution of
                               OER silos.                                          OER—empowers people in a global dialogue. The
                                                                                   success of this international effort depends on a great
                               Because these ideas are fairly abstract,            deal, as many issues and barriers to open education
                               we have undertaken to build a proof-of-             are country- and culture-specific. However, despite
                               concept search engine, which we are calling         contextual differences, significant progress has
                               Universal Education Search (UES). We hope           been made around the world. Some specific project
                               this tool will help people to see the benefits      highlights of the year:
                               of semantic mark-up and of open licensing.
4                              If all goes well, we will have a public release             Latin America
                               of a beta version of UES before the end of                  Latam Commons 2008: The Public Domain,
                               the year.                                                   Creative Commons, and Open Education in
                                                                                           Latin America, held Nov 19-21 in Santiago,
                               Open Education Community Site                               Chile, was a great success. The event was
                               Social barriers require that we recognize                   co-hosted and excellently managed by the
                               that OER development and access are only                    Non-Governmental Organization Derechos
                               the first steps. Because Creative Commons                   Digitales, and representatives from all over
                               licenses are fundamental infrastructural                    Latin America were present and actively
                               elements of most OER, ccLearn is naturally                  participated in the meeting. Project Leads
                               positioned to serve as a sort of “switchboard”              of Creative Commons jurisdictions first
                               and catalyst for the rest of the community,                 held a one-day meeting to discuss their
                               especially on an international scale. In that               projects, possible strategic initiatives and
                               vein, we are currently building an “Open                    collaborations across the region, and shared
                               Education Community” site which will enable                 challenges. These conversations are just the
                               OER projects to share information and                       beginning of what is planned to become a
                               collaborate much more easily. In addition,                  regular regional gathering to leverage the
                               the site will showcase the various tools and                expertise and resources that are distributed
                               resources that we and others have created.                  throughout the region. The next day was
                               Finally, the site will serve as a landing pad               devoted to a highly interactive “unconference”
                               for people who are interested in learning                   on open education which brought together
                               more about the open education movement.                     leading international advocates for open
                                                                                           education with key figures in libraries and
                               Reflecting on the past year: Though the                     ministries of education in Chile and beyond.
                               fruits of our efforts are not yet widely visible,           The goal of the meeting was to gather
                               I am pleased to report that we have made                    information regarding top concerns and key
projects involved in the growth of the open       capacity of the issues related to OA to enable
education movement, to be synthesized             members to benefit from the content, which
and then leveraged for collaborative              is made freely available through OA, as well
opportunities both within and beyond the          as ensuring that the local content produced
region. Look for a report on this event in the    within their countries is widely distributed.”
coming months. Finally, Derechos Digitales
orchestrated a seminar on the public domain       Bloomsbury Academic was recently featured
which included cutting-edge research              in our interview with Frances Pinter. Launched
reports and discussions regarding the legal       back in September, it is the new imprint
and practical elements of both defining and       by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, publisher of
utilizing the public domain in Latin America.     the Harry Potter series, based in London.
The philosophical and legal issues pertinent      Bloomsbury Academic will publish works
to consideration of the public domain is          in the Humanities and Social Sciences
clearly of broad interest in the region, and      exclusively under non-commercial CC
we are hopeful that these ideas will continue     licenses, some with additional permissions
to serve as organizing themes for ongoing         to use in certain commercial contexts.
conversation and action to enhance access         They chose CC licenses because “Creative
to knowledge and improved scholarship in          Commons is the best known license for this
the future.                                       kind of publishing. There are still some issues
                                                  with it, such as defining very precisely what
New Zealand                                       is ‘commercial’. However, we felt that on
New Zealand is the home of Otago                  balance it was best to go with a license that
Polytechnic, whose default intellectual           had such wide recognition. One reason for                            5
property policy blasted them onto the OER         putting the whole text online free of charge is
map last year. All work created by the            to avoid all the fuss and confusion that arises
university and its members are automatically      when publishers allow odd excerpts online
available to the world via CC BY, the             and free downloads for limited periods etc.
most open license and ideally suited for          This may be good PR, but better to have a

                                                                                                    CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10
educational purposes. CC BY allows you to         policy that is more focused on delivering
freely distribute, derive and adapt the work      what authors and readers want – which is
as long as you credit the authors, making it      to use the Web as a library. This is especially
easy to reuse and re-mix educational works.       true of academic works.”
We hope that more institutions will follow
Otago’s lead and enact similar policies.
Leigh Blackall, at the Education Development
Center of Otago, shares our view: “I think
everyone will come to see the simplicity and
flexibility of CC BY, and that alone outweighs
all other concerns.”

We have very strong connections in Europe,
two of which are eIFL and Bloomsbury
Academic., Electronic Information
for Libraries, is a giant component of
the international effort, as it consists of a
“network of 2,220 libraries in 47 transitioning
and developing countries with a combined
population of 800 million people.” Though
it is based in Europe, it is not limited to
European countries. Back in May, eIFL voiced
their commitment to the goal of “[creating] a
world where each and every person on earth
can access and contribute to the sum of all
human knowledge.” “Through the eIFL OA
(Open Access) Program, eIFL members build
                               Recent Highlights from CC’s Other Programs

                                                  CC Core
                                                  Annual Fundraising Campaign                   foremost, this is a crucial step toward
                                                  continues: corporate matching                 de-fracturing the world of free culture
                                                  challenges; giveaways                         and free software, which should have the
                                                                                                impact of greatly accelerating the growth
                                                  Safe Creative and WikiHow both issued         of that world. The next step will be for the
                                                  corporate matching challenges in              Wikipedia/Wikimedia community (and
CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                                  support of our 2008 campaign, and             other FDL-licensed wikis) to decide to
                                                  we’re proud to say that we met both           offer wiki content under CC BY-SA 3.0,
                                                  challenges ahead of schedule, resulting       which we hope to see someday soon.
                                                  in very generous donations from Safe
                                                  Creative, $4000, and WikiHow, $3000.          SSRC awards grant for CC license
                                                  We are grateful for these and all our         research
                                                  corporate donors, whose support
                                                  helps sustain our organization. This          We’re thrilled to announce that the Social
                                                  year’s fundraising campaign has also          Science Research Center (SSRC) has
                                                  garnered exemplary support from CC            awarded CC with a grant for the project
                                                  founder, Lawrence Lessig, who has             “Assessing the Commons: Social Metrics
                                                  offered autographed copies of his latest      for the New Media Landscape.” Thanks
                                                  book, REMIX, for donors giving $500           to the SSRC, George Cheliotis, of CC
                                                  and above, and CC-licensing musician          Singapore and the National University
                                                  Jonathan Coulton, who has teamed              of Singapore, will work with Creative
6                                                 up with us to offer his unreleased (CC-       Commons to research the “global
                                                  licensed) album on customized USB             patterns of CC license use, as well as
                                                  flash drives to our donors who give $50       developing metrics showing penetration
                                                  and above. We weren’t prepared for            and impact of open licensing, per
                                                  how popular the flash drives would be         jurisdiction and globally.”
                                                  and ran out of our first batch in less than
                                                  three days, but we quickly ordered more
                                                  to keep up with demand. Supplies are
                                                  very limited, donate soon if you would
                                                  like to receive one.

                                                  Huge Milestone: Free Software
                                                  Foundation     releases   Free
                                                  Documentation License 1.3

                                                  The Free Software Foundation has
                                                  just released version 1.3 of its Free
                                                  Documentation License (FDL) containing
                                                  language which allows FDL-licensed
                                                  wikis to republish FDL content under the
                                                  CC Attribution-ShareAlike license until
                                                  August 1, 2009. Excepted from this are
                                                  FDL documents originating elsewhere
                                                  unless they have been incorporated into
                                                  the wiki prior to November 1, 2008.
                                                  Why is this news important? First and
Science Commons
NeuroCommons RDF distribution                Upcoming release of CC0 Waiver
and release of the installer:
                                             We are pleased that CC0 (CC Zero),
This is exciting news for NeuroCommons       currently in its third beta, is on track
because it is a prototype of a modular       to be released by the end of the year.
scientific knowledge base built on           CC0 was conceived over two years ago,
web standards and open data, the             beginning with the Science Commons
first system of its kind (of which we’re     Open Data conference at the National
aware). The inspiration is GNU/Linux         Academies in Washington, D.C. That
distributions such as Debian, which          journey has since taken members of our
consist of a large number of open            team to the Sorbonne, Paris, where they
software packages that interconnect          gathered members of the CC community
using a shared set of interfaces; in the     alongside leading legal and scientific
case of Science Commons, they have           experts to discuss the problem of data
a distribution of open data packages         sharing. From that discussion emerged                              7
interconnected using a shared set of         the idea that would eventually become
formal terminologies (“ontologies”).         CC0. CC0 is a protocol that enables
Using this distribution you can build        people to waive to the fullest extent
your own knowledge base for molecular        possible under applicable copyright law
biology and biomedicine for personal,        all rights they have and associate with a

                                                                                             CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10
lab-wide, or internet-wide use. This is a    work so it has no (or minimal) copyright
first step toward scalable practices for     or neighboring rights restrictions
making reuseable “data mashups” that         attached to it. To the extent the waiver
would eventually cover all of science.       is not legally effective in any jurisdiction,
The installer project started about a year   then the protocol takes the form of
ago, and was released in September.          a nonexclusive worldwide license to
The data packages themselves have            exercise all copyright and neighboring
been in the works for almost two years,      legal rights in the work. Specifically,
and are under steady development.            CC0 is a tool targeted at scientific data
                                             sharing. Factual data in databases
This project is significant because it       are covered by many conflicting and
carries CC work on the legal and             confusing copyright regimes throughout
technical aspects of sharing and             the world. Even lawyers have a hard time
mashups into a scientific domain. Even       reconciling all these laws. With CC0, we
after solving the problem of access to       will make it simple. CC0 returns data to
data, there still remains the problem of     the public domain and makes it “safe
using it. As it stands, data integration     for science”— that is, free of restrictive
is widely acknowledged to be an              copyrights, contracts, and other IP
enormous source of inefficiency in the       that restrict sharing and reuse of data.
research cycle, and any contributions        Stay tuned for more news on the launch
or improvements we make have great           of CC0.
potential to make the world a better
place. Visit for
more information.
                                                               CC International
                                                               Two new CC jurisdictions launched,             the banner of “Free Society” at the
                                                               more in the works!                             Free Society Conference and Nordic
                                                                                                              Summit (FSCONS) in Götheborg,
                                                               Creative Commons and CCi proudly               Sweden in September to build ties
                                                               announce the launch of ported CC               and bridge projects among their
                                                               licenses in Guatemala on October 23            respective communities.
CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                                               and Hong Kong on October 25, neither
                                                               of which would have been possible              Creative Commons and COMMUNIA,
                                                               without the dedicated hard work of local       a growing European network
                                                               Project Leads and volunteers. In another
                                                               part of the world, Jordan continues to         COMMUNIA, the European Thematic
                                                               discuss its license draft, the first Version   Network on the Digital Public Domain,
                                                               3.0 draft available in Arabic. You             funded by the European Commission, is
                                                               can follow the discussion here: www.           greatly helping to increase awareness of
                                                                  Creative Commons throughout Europe.
                                                               jo. You can also contribute your own           At a workshop in Amsterdam in October,
                                                               ideas, read discussion archives, and get       attendees explored the theme Marking
                                                               updates by visiting: http://lists.ibiblio.     the public domain: relinquishment
                                                               org/mailman/listinfo/cc-jo/. In related        & certification, and the CC0 beta/
                                                               news, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia         discussion draft 3 (see section: Science
                                                               continue to surpass the call of duty in        Commons) was one of the main items
8                                                              preparing to bring CC licenses to their        on the agenda. We are also thrilled to
                                                               jurisdictions. Thanks to the generous          announce that COMMUNIA will host its
                                                               support of the Eurasia Partnership             first workshop of 2009 on January 23
                               CC Hong Kong: Image
                               selected from “CCHK Launch      Foundation (EPF), Project Leads from           with the European Broadcasting Union,
                               Programme (.pdf)” (http://      the three jurisdictions came together in       bringing together many of the major
                               hk.creativecommons.             October with EPF representatives and           European public broadcasters to talk
                                                               CC Serbia’s Legal Project Lead, Nena           about how to implement alternative
                               launchprogramme1.pdf)           Antic, in Tbilisi, Georgia for a workshop      licensing schemes, especially CC.
                               by     Creative    Commons      to discuss the CCi license porting process
                               Hong       Kong      (http://   in their jurisdictions.
                               org/), available under a
                               CC-BY 3.0 License (http://      International conference brings
                                 together   Free   Culture, Free
                               licenses/by/3.0/).              Software, and Free Content
                                                                                                                    Communia: Image from COMMUNIA Conference
                                                                                                                    2008      (
                                                               Creative Commons Sweden, Free
                                                                                                                    by Politecnico di Torino (,
                                                               Software Foundation Europe, and                      available under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 License (http://
                                                               Wikimedia Sverige joined forces under      
Al Jazeera and Creative Commons:
groundbreaking event set for

Creative Commons is organizing,
together with Al Jazeera satellite channel,
a special CC-Al Jazeera day on the
14th of March 2009. The event will be
followed by the Al Jazeera Forum, on the
15-16 of March, an annual gathering of
more than 500 journalists and media
experts coming from all over the world
to Doha, Qatar.

CC Salons continue to pop up                                                                                                      9
around the globe

We are delighted to announce that CC
                                               Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia: “Tbilisi Old District”
Austria and CC France each hosted their        (
first salons in October, bringing together     in the public domain

                                                                                                               CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10
members of their respective communities
to talk about CC licenses and the shift
towards openness and sharing. Watch
for more salons to come, and remember
- anyone can start a CC Salon, no matter
where you live! Check out our resources
for starting a salon in your region: http://

CC and pop music in Romania

Hi-Q, the hugely successful Romanian
pop group, announced the first CC
remix competition in Romania. Hi-
Q’s unreleased song “Eu+Tu=Iubire”
(”Me+U=Love”) will be included on the
band’s upcoming album.
                                                                                                                           barackobamadotcom) CC BY-NC-SA (http://
                                                                                                                           20081104_Chicago_ IL_ElectionNight1265

                                                                                                                           Barack Obama (
                                Culture Commons

                                                                                                                           Barack Obama:
                                U.S. President-elect Barack Obama            casual listeners, all the while protecting
                                CC-licenses election night photos            ISGM’s commercial rights.
                                on Flickr
                                                                             The Designers Accord, a community
                                Barack Obama and his staff have posted       of more than 100,000 designers who
 CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                photographs to his Flickr photostream        are committed to environmentally-
                                since early 2007, and their most recent      friendly and socially-responsible design
                                set from election night, November 4th,       practices, has launched an online
                                offers an incredible behind the scenes       platform for sharing design ideas and
                                look at a historic point in American         has chosen to publish all of the site’s
                                history. All of the photos are released      submissions and materials under a
                                under a CC BY-NC-SA license, making          Creative Commons Attribution license.
                                it easy for anyone to share and reuse.       The Designers Accord Web Community
                                                                             is a repository of case studies, resources,
                                CC licensing encourages openness,            methodologies, and best practices that
                                sharing, and innovation in the               have been created by designers and are
                                cultural realm                               intended for public use.

                                Culture Commons focuses most of its          Into Infinity, the CC-licensed art and
10                              energy on encouraging content platforms      music exhibition produced by dublab in
                                and organizations to properly implement      collaboration with Creative Commons,
                                and adopt Creative Commons licenses.         is going strong, with regular additions
                                The result: myriad gratifying examples       by artists and musicians from all over
                                of bottom-up CC usage that enable any        the world. We’ve already seen some
                                and everybody to successfully achieve        great remixes of the works, which we’re
                                proper CC integration, creating a            looking forward to presenting publicly
                                baseline feature for future development      soon - we’ve got an installation lined
                                of communities and laying the necessary      up for CC’s 6th Birthday Party in San
                                groundwork for another potential             Francisco on December 18. For now,
                                Flickr or Wikipedia to come along.           we’re pleased to announce the debut
                                Here are some recent fruits of Culture       of the Into Infinity Audio Mega-Mixer, a
                                Commons’ labor:                              soundboard that lets you create in-the-
                                                                             moment sound collages from all of Into
                                “The Concert,” a classical music             Infinity’s 8-second audio loops. Check it
                                podcast produced by the Isabella Stewart     out on
                                Gardner Museum (ISGM) and released
                                under a Creative Commons Music               SoundCloud, a new media sharing site
                                Sharing license, reached its 54th episode    that allows musicians to post their works
                                and 1 millionth download in October.         easily, share them securely, interact
                                While the content of the podcast - lush      with other musicians in a collaborative
                                arrangements of beautiful compositions       fashion, and check stats on song listens/
                                - is at the heart of why “The Concert” has   comments, has integrated CC licensing
                                done so well, the Music Sharing license      into its framework by giving users the
                                employed by ISGM makes that content          choice to upload their works under a CC
                                immediately sharable by stripping away       license or a public domain declaration.
                                legal hurdles that might otherwise inhibit
Aviary, whose mission is to “make               MuseumPods has collaborated with
the world’s creation accessible,” has           CC to produce the “Podcast Publishing,
baked Creative Commons licensing                Access, and Rights Survey,” which
into their platform of live image editing       will gather insight from museum and
applications. The site has launched with        education communities about their
three distinct tools so far that help artists   interest in Creative Commons and CC
create and share fantastic images with          licenses, as well as attitudes towards
the intention of eventually creating a          sharing in general.
new kind of market place to encourage
commercial licensing of their CC licensed
work through our new CC+ protocol,
which is basically a Creative Commons
license + some other agreement which
provides “morePermissions.”

                                                                                                               CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                                                             AVIARY:          http://aviary.
                                                                             c o m / a p p s / w e b v 2 /

                                       We rely on our supporters to continue our work
                                       enabling stories like those listed above. Check it out

                                        CC Store:
 CC Newsletter - Issue No. 10

                                       Subscribe to the CC Weblog:

                                       Creative Commons was built with and is sustained by
                                       the generous support of organizations including the
                                       Center for the Public Domain, the Omidyar Network,
                                       The Rockefeller Foundation, The John D. and
                                       Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and The William
                                       and Flora Hewlett Foundation, as well as members of
                                       the public.
                                       Creative Commons newsletters are also posted to the
                                       CC Weblog. For back issues please visit

                                                                    Cover: “Photo text” © 2008. Lairaja. Some Rights Reserved. Except when otherwise noted,
                                                                    this work is licensed under
                                                                    ph/ This remixed image incorporates Creative Commons Newsletter article (see
                                                                    pages 3 to 5 of this issue), under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license; the ccLearn
                                                                    logo; and Gavin Baker / naufragio (“The XO Inspires”
                                                                    naufragio/635759795/), and Alexandre Duret-Lutz / gadl (“Bookshelves” http://flickr.
                                                                    com/photos/gadl/91539531/), both under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0
                                                                    licenses (