DOKK Library
     So You Think You Know C?

And Ten More Short Essays on Programming Languages

               by Oleksandr Kaleniuk

                 Published in 2020
     This is being published under the Creative Commons Zero license.

I have dedicated this work to the public domain by waiving all of my rights to
the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring
                    rights, to the extent allowed by law.

         You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for
               commercial purposes, all without asking permission.
Table of Contents
Introduction......................................................................................................... 4
So you think you know C?.................................................................................. 6
APL deserves its renaissance too.......................................................................13
Going beyond the idiomatic Python..................................................................30
Why Erlang is the only true computer language................................................39
The invisible Prolog in C++.............................................................................. 43
One reason you probably shouldn’t bet your whole career on JavaScript.........54
You don't have to learn assembly to read disassembly......................................57
Fortran is still a thing........................................................................................ 64
Learn you a Lisp in 0 minutes...........................................................................68
Blood, sweat, and C++...................................................................................... 74
If I were to invent a programming language for the 21st century......................76
Notes................................................................................................................. 83
I've been programming since I was nine. It is my passion, my job, my hobby,
and my comfort zone. That's what I do when I'm stressed, angry, or depressed.
Also, more often than anything else, it is my reason to be stressed, angry, and
depressed in the first place

I never did COBOL. Except for that one time on a dare. But TASM, MASM32,
ILAsm, C89, C++17, C#, Prolog, Erlang, Java, JavaScript, Action Script,
InstallShield Script, Object Pascal, regular Pascal, Auto Lisp, homemade Lisp,
Lisp that is actually a Python, actual Python, — you name it. I tried them all.
And a little bit of APL, too.

Why though?

Well, it is a bit like traveling. You get to see the architecture you don’t see in
your home town, you get to eat food you’d never think about cooking yourself,
you get to talk to people with the worldview you never imagine existed. It’s fun,
it’s educational, it’s good for you.

But to be completely honest, even more than like traveling, for me it was like
running away. I was never happy with professional programming. I was never
happy with my own work either.

My first full-time job was to support an eight years old game engine in C++
made by five different programming teams in succession. It had everything: C-
ssembler, WinAPI calls, POSIX multithreading, one-liners, thousand-liners,
class diagrams that don’t fit the screen, and since it was the time of the Modern
C++ Design, extensive use of template meta-programming on top.

It was so needlessly fascinating, that every time I could get a chance of doing
something on the side, like writing shaders in GLSL or utilities in MASM32 or
tech-demos for a pocket console in C, I would take that chance.

I guess this turned into a habit. On my next job, I was still writing in C++ most
of the time but I made a documentation system in PHP, wrote a scene editor in
C#, ported our then new and shiny engine to Objective-C and back, and even
joined one very controversial project in ActionScript.

Then I tried to switch the stack entirely and started from scratch by joining an
Erlang-powered company but somehow still found myself writing Python and
JavaScript there.

I found a job in NPP automation that required C++ experience and, guess what,
while I started in C++, just in a few months I shifted to Python, C, and

On my next job, I finally made peace with C++, and with it, I found my inner
peace. Maybe C++ got better or maybe I just got older but I’m not running
away anymore. I still enjoy trying other languages such as Julia, Clojure, or
Scala but these days it’s more like a series of holiday trips than a journey.

I can’t say that running away from complexity was a smart thing to do. It was
definitely not the most productive way to create software. The journey,
however, has taught me a few things so it was not a complete waste of time

This book is a reflection of these lessons. It consists of small essays each about
one particular language and one particular insight.

They can be read in order but they can be read separately. I encourage you to
start from the languages you’re the least interested in. I also encourage you to
try the actual languages too.

I hope you’ll find this book not too boring, not too trivial, and if nothing else,
not too long.
So you think you know C?
A lot of programmers claim they know C. Well, it has the most famous syntax,
it has been there for half a century, and it’s not cluttered with obscure features.
It’s easy!

I mean, it’s easy to claim that you know C. You probably learned it in college or
on the go, you probably had some experience with it, you probably think that
you know it through and through because there’s not much to know. Well, there
is. C is not that simple.

If you think it is — take this test. It only has 5 questions. Every question is
basically the same: what the return value would be? And each question has a
choice of four answers, of which one and only one is right.

Question 1

  struct S {
    int i;
    char c;
  } s;

  int main(void) {
    return sizeof(*(&s));

  A) 4
  B) 5
  C) 8
  D) I don't know.
Question 2

 int main(void) {
   char a = 0;
   short int b = 0;
   return sizeof(b) == sizeof(a+b);

 A) 0
 B) 1
 C) 2
 D) I don't know.

Question 3

 int main(void) {
   char a = ' ' * 13;
   return a;

 A) 416
 B) 160
 C) -96
 D) I don't know.
Question 4

  int main(void) {
    int i = 16;
    return (((((i >= i) << i) >> i) <= i));

  A) 0
  B) 1
  C) 16
  D) I don't know.

Question 5

  int main(void) {
    int i = 0;
    return i++ + ++i;

  A) 1
  B) 2
  C) 3
  D) I don't know.

That’s it, put down your pens. The answers are under the sheet.
Great Mass in C minor by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
                           That’s right, Mozart also wrote in C
The right answers are:

                         A                   B                   C              D
              1                                                                 ✔
              2                                                                 ✔
              3                                                                 ✔
              4                                                                 ✔
              5                                                                 ✔
               And yes, the right answer to every question1 is “I don’t know”

Let’s untangle them one by one.

The first one is about structure padding. C compiler knows that storing
unaligned data in RAM may be costly, so it pads your data for you. If you have
5 bytes of data in a structure, it will probably make it 8. Or 16. Or 6. Or
whatever it wants. There are extensions like GCC attributes aligned and packed
that let you get some control over this process, but they are non-standard. C
itself does not define padding attributes, so the right answer is: “I don’t know”.

The second one is about integer promotion. It’s only reasonable that the type of
short int and the type of expression with the largest integer being short int
would be the same. But “reasonable” doesn’t mean “right” for C. There is a rule
that every integer expression gets promoted to int. Actually, it’s much more
complicated than that. Take a peek at the standard, you’ll enjoy it.

But even so, we don’t compare types, we compare sizes. And the standard only
guarantees that the range of short int should not exceed int. Their ranges may be
equal, and technically the size of the short int may even be greater than the size
of int because of the padding bits. So the right answer is: “I don’t know”.

The third one is all about dark corners. Starting from that neither integer
overflows, nor char type sign are defined by the standard. The overflows are
undefined, and the char sign is implementation-specific. But even more, the size
of the char type itself is not specified in bits either. Historically, there were
platforms where it was 6 bits (remember trigraphs?), and there are platforms
today where all five integer types are 32 bits. Even the value of the space
character is implementation-defined. Without all these details specified, every
speculation about the result is invalid, so the answer is: “I don’t know”.

The fourth one looks tricky, but it’s not that hard in retrospective since you
already know that int size is not directly specified in the standard. It can easily
be 16 bits, then the very first operation will cause the over-shift and that’s plain
undefined behavior. It’s not C fault, on some platforms, it is even undefined in
assembly, so the compiler simply can’t give you valid guarantees without eating
up a lot of performance.

So once again “I don’t know” is the right answer.

And the last one is classic. The order of operand evaluation for + is not
specified, and i++ and ++i alter their operand. It might work just like you
expect on one platform and might fail easily on the other. Usually, it just
evaluates to 2, so you get used to it until one day it doesn't. That’s the problem
with unspecified things. When you meet one, the right answer is always: “I
don’t know.”

P. S.
And at this point, I only have to apologize. The test is clearly provocative and
may even be a little offensive. I’m sorry if it causes any aggravation.

The thing is, I learned C in roughly 1998, and for the whole 15 years thought
that I’m good at it. It was my language of choice in college, and I’ve done some
successful projects in C on my first full-time job, and even when I was working
in C++, I mostly thought of it as of over-bloated C.

The pivoting moment came in 2013, when I’ve got myself involved with some
safety-critical PLC programming. It was a research project in nuclear power
plant automation, where absolutely no underspecification was tolerable. I had to
learn that, while I did know a lot about C programming, the absolute majority
of what I knew was false. And I had to learn it the hard way too.

Eventually, I had to learn to rely on the standard instead of folklore; to trust
measurements and not presumptions; to take “things that simply work”
skeptically, — I had to learn an engineering attitude. This is what matters the
most, not some particular WAT anecdotes.

I only hope this little test would help someone like myself from the past to learn
this attitude in some 15 minutes and not 15 years.
APL deserves its renaissance too
This is the Game of Life in APL.

  Life←{↑1 ⍵∨.∧3 4=+/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂⍵}

I know, I know. I should have started with the introduction. But doesn’t it
introduce itself rather well? You can see for yourself that it’s ultimately concise,
expressive, and utterly alien to all the mainstream computer languages.

In fact, it didn’t originate as a computer language at all. It was proposed as a
better notation for tensor algebra by Harvard mathematician Kenneth E.
Iverson. It was meant to be written by hand on a blackboard to transfer
mathematical ideas from one person to another.

But due to its formality, it turned up to be surprisingly good to transfer ideas
from people to computers as well. It was made into a computer language in the
early 60s. These weird symbols like ↑ or ⌽ were not a problem at all, because
every hardware manufacturer had its own keyboard at the time anyway. ASCII
wasn’t even ratified yet.

Its popularity grew through the following years peaking in the 70s. Fun fact, the
very first portable computer by IBM — IBM 5100 “a 50-lb package of
interactive personal computing” — came 6 years before the famous IBM PC and
with APL on board.
                      By Marcin Wichary from San Francisco, U.S.A.
            ([1]Uploaded by Partyzan_XXI) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The secret of APL’s popularity was simple: learning all the alien symbols is a
one-time investment, and expressiveness — the leverage you as a programmer
gain — is for life.

However, later on, with the rise of BASIC based personal computing and C
powered UNIX platform, APL came off the scene. It is still used in some
niches, such as in the financial sector, so there are people who actually make
good money using APL up to this day. But it is, of course, as far from the
mainstream as it can get.

Still, it's a nice and powerful language. And it's simple too. You might not
believe it, but it’s one of the simplest languages in existence. I mean, sure,
mastering tensor algebra is a bit tricky but once you’re there, the language itself
is not at all complicated.
Here, let me show you how the Game of Life works2.

The left arrow is an assignment, and the brackets mark a function's body. So
this: life←{...} is simply a function definition.

In APL function's arguments are tacit, meaning you don’t have to specify a
name for every argument, you just know by convention, that the left argument
is always ⍺ and the right is always ⍵ . But doesn’t it mean that APL functions
take only two arguments at most? Not really. When you want to call C-like
function like this: foo(x, y, z), in APL terms you simply pass a tuple of 3 values
as a single argument. It’s still one ⍵ . And you can't do (a, b, c)foo(x, y, z) in C
at all, so APL is actually more powerful than C in this regard.

Let’s run our life with some input. We’ll use the ⍴ function to form a 5x5 matrix
out of a linear array.

  1. Form the in variable as a 5x5 matrix

      in ← 5 5 ⍴ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Show the in variable


  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   1   0   0
  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0
In the Game of Life, this figure is called Glider. Running the life function on in
will result in this:

  1. Show the in variable


  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   1   0   0
  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0

  2. Run life on in

          life in

  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   0   0   0
  0   1   0   1   0
  0   0   1   1   0
  0   0   1   0   0

The Glider moves!

In APL what we would normally call operators are functions too. Things like
these: + , - , × , etc.

The functions are executed from right to left one at the time. There is no
precedence, all the functions are equal.
The first function of the life's body would be enclose: ⊂ . What it does — it
makes our 5x5 matrix input into a scalar containing 5x5 matrix.

  1. Show the in variable


  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   1   0   0
  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0

  2. Enclose the in matrix as a scalar

          ⊂ in

  │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│
  │0 1 1 1 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│
The next thing, as we're going right to left, is a bit trickier. It is rotate: ⌽ . It
rotates an array at a given index.

  1. Rotate an array 1 position left

        1 ⌽ 1 2 3 4

  2 3 4 1

  2. Rotate an array 2 positions left

        2 ⌽ 1 2 3 4

  3 4 1 2

  3. Rotate an array 1 position right (-1 left)

        ¯1 ⌽ 1 2 3 4

  4 1 2 3

  4. Rotate an array 0 positions (let it be)

        0 ⌽ 1 2 3 4

  1 2 3 4

But in our example, it doesn’t go by itself. It is itself an argument for an outer
product operator: ∘. (in APL, functions that take other functions as arguments
are called operators).
And together they do this:

  1. Enclose the in variable

       ⊂ in

  │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│
  │0 1 1 1 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│

  2. Apply outer rotation for -1, 0 and 1

       ¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂ in

  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
The next function also goes with an operator. It’s rotate first: ⊖ . It works pretty
much like rotate, but it rotates a nested array around the first level of
“nestedness”. Basically, it scrolls matrices.

  1. Just show the in


  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   1   0   0
  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0

  2. Rotate a matrix 1 position up

          1 ⊖ in

  0   0   1   0   0
  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   0   0   0

  3. Rotate a matrix 2 positions up

          2 ⊖ in

  0   0   0   1   0
  0   1   1   1   0
  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   1   0   0
4. Rotate a matrix 2 position down (-2 up)

        ¯2 ⊖ in

0   1   1   1   0
0   0   0   0   0
0   0   0   0   0
0   0   1   0   0
0   0   0   1   0

5. Rotate a matrix 1 position down (-1 up)

        ¯1 ⊖ in

0   0   0   0   0
0   0   0   0   0
0   0   1   0   0
0   0   0   1   0
0   1   1   1   0

6. Rotate a matrix 0 positions (let it be)

        0 ⊖ in

0   0   0   0   0
0   0   1   0   0
0   0   0   1   0
0   1   1   1   0
0   0   0   0   0
With the outer product operator and our previous result it goes like this:

  1. Enclose the in variable

        ⊂ in

  │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│
  │0 1 1 1 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│

  2. Apply outer rotate for -1, 0 and 1

        ¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂ in

  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
3. Apply outer rotate first for -1, 0 and 1

    ¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
│0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
│0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
│0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
The next function in called ravel: , and it looks like a comma. What it does, it
makes a nested array 1-dimensional.

  1. Form the x variable as a 2x3 matrix

        x ← 2 3 ⍴ 1 2 3 4 5 6

  2. Show the x variable


  1 2 3
  4 5 6

  3. Use ravel to make a matrix back into an array

        , x

  1 2 3 4 5 6

It doesn’t ravel scalars, so being applied to our 3x3 matrix of enclosed matrices,
it would make a linear array of 9 enclosed matrices.

        ,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│         │0 1 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│         │0 0 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│0 1 0 0 0│   ...   │1 1 1 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 1│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│         │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 1 1 1│0 1 1 1 0│1 1 1 0 0│         │0 0 0 0 0│
The next piece of code is an operator and function pair. Operator reduce: / , and
a function plus: + . As you might guess, it reduces, as in map-reduce, a
summation of all the matrices in a linear array.

        +/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

  │0 1 1 1 0│
  │0 1 2 2 1│
  │1 3 5 4 2│
  │1 2 4 3 2│
  │1 2 3 2 1│

Operator compare: = produces matrices of 0 and 1 based on whether every
element in the right argument equals a corresponding element in the left
argument. In our case we would use it to filter out 3s and 4s:
1. Sum all the rotated matrices

    +/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

│0 1 1 1 0│
│0 1 2 2 1│
│1 3 5 4 2│
│1 2 4 3 2│
│1 2 3 2 1│

2. Compare with 4. All the 4s are now 1

    4 = +/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 1 0│
│0 0 1 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│

3. Compare with 3 and 4

    3 4 = +/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 0 0 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
│0 1 0 0 0│0 0 0 1 0│
│0 0 0 1 0│0 0 1 0 0│
│0 0 1 0 0│0 0 0 0 0│
Then there is the logical part. Functions or: ∨ and and: ∧ used with the inner
product . operator. They form an operator that makes an and on every element
pair and then an or on a result.

  1. And function

        1 0 1 0 ∧ 1 1 0 0

  1 0 0 0

  2. Or function

        1 0 1 0 ∨ 1 1 0 0

  1 1 1 0

  3. Inner product operator of or-ed ands

        1 0 1 0 ∨.∧ 1 1 0 0


Remember, we didn't count the neighbors exactly, we counted them along with
the value in each cell. This was the 0 0 rotation. Now we have to build our logic
around this.

   • If the sum is 3 and the cell had 0, then it has 3 neighbors — it lives.
   • If the sum is 3 and the cell had 1, then it has 2 neighbors — it still lives.
   • If the sum is 4 and the cell had 0, then it has 4 neighbors — it doesn't
   • If the sum is 4 and the cell had 1, then it has 3 neighbors — it lives.

That's why when we want our and to work with 3s unconditionally, we supply it
with identity matrix 1. And when we want to and 4s with the original input, we
supply it with in. Then we only have to or the results so any condition produces
a living cell.
That's how 1 in ∨.∧ 3 4... works.

          1 in ∨.∧3 4=+/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

  ┌─────────┐              ⍝   Identity            Original in
  │0 0 0 0 0│              ⍝     1 1 1 1     1       0 0 0 0 0
  │0 0 0 0 0│              ⍝     1 1 1 1     1       0 0 1 0 0
  │0 1 0 1 0│              ⍝     1 1 1 1     1       0 0 0 1 0
  │0 0 1 1 0│              ⍝     1 1 1 1     1       0 1 1 1 0
  │0 0 1 0 0│              ⍝     1 1 1 1     1       0 0 0 0 0

The last function mix ↑ here simply removes the enclosure.

  1. Enclosed

          1 in ∨.∧3 4=+/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

  │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 0 0 0 0│
  │0 1 0 1 0│
  │0 0 1 1 0│
  │0 0 1 0 0│

  2. Mixed

          ↑1 in ∨.∧3 4=+/,¯1 0 1∘.⊖¯1 0 1∘.⌽⊂in

  0   0   0   0   0
  0   0   0   0   0
  0   1   0   1   0
  0   0   1   1   0
  0   0   1   0   0

Not so alien now, is it?
But why does it deserve its renaissance after all?
The last decade was a renaissance for the Lisp being reborn in Clojure. Also,
Erlang, being a niche language for telecom, decided to waltz into the
mainstream with a plethora of web frameworks. Even Haskell not only gained
popularity on its own but deeply influenced F# and Scala. APL however,
despite its tremendous power, didn't get too much acclaim.

My theory is, since it was designed to be written by hand, it didn't work out
very well with an ASCII. Didn't survive the standardization. Of course, APL has
its ASCII friendly descendants inherited its expressiveness but frankly, they are
all ugly far beyond the possibility of public success. They simply lack the style.

Roughly 86% of all the fun you get from APL programming comes from the
mysterious symbols and the magic behind them.

So it is not that APL is alien to computers, it’s just the computers were alien to
APL for quite a while.

But now, with the development of touch interfaces and optical character
recognition, it might just get its second chance. Since on a tablet or on a phone
you do have to use a virtual keyboard anyway, why not choose APL for its
tablet-friendly concision? Or you could even draw APL symbols with your
fingers. Not being constrained with the keyboard, you could name your own
functions with hand-written symbols as well. You could develop your own truly
free-form language just like Iverson did!

Since the ratification of ASCII, our languages were held hostage by the
standard keyboard. But since the keyboard itself is not a thing for the majority
of devices, shouldn’t it lead to the reinvention of more concise and expressive
ways to write your code?
Going beyond the idiomatic Python
People don’t speak entirely in idioms unless they are totally off their rockers.
Overusing idioms makes you seem more than self-confident, full of air, and
frankly not playing with a full deck. It is fair to middling to spice your language
with idioms a little bit, but build the whole speech entirely out of them is beside
the point.

What I’m trying to say, stuffing your text with idioms you happen to read
somewhere doesn’t automatically make it better. And it doesn’t work for your
code either.

There is a book called “Writing Idiomatic Python” written by Jeff Knupp. It is a
decent collection of Python idioms, mixed together with some of the less
known language features and best practices. While being rather helpful as a
dictionary or a bestiary, it promotes the dangerous fallacy that writing code
idiomatically automatically makes it better.

You might think I’m exaggerating so here is a direct quote:

      Each idiom that includes a sample shows both the idiomatic way of
      implementing the code as well as the “harmful” way. In many cases, the
      code listed as “harmful” is not harmful in the sense that writing code in
      that manner will cause problems. Rather, it is simply an example of how
      one might write the same code non-idiomatically. You may use the
      “harmful” examples as templates to search for in your own code. When
      you find code like that, replace it with the idiomatic version.
                                — Idiom, sir? — Idiom!

Even in that very book, however, there are examples that simply don’t work all
that well. Like this one:

  def contains_zero(iterable):
      # 0 is "Falsy," so this works
      return not all(iterable)

This is a trivial function, but due to the unwanted idiom, it requires translation.
If not all elements are iterable then they contain zero? That’s just nonsense!
Using a standard language facility makes the whole thing trivial again.

  def contains_zero(container):
      return 0 in container

The container contains zero if there is a zero in the container. This is so trivial;
it doesn’t even deserve to be a function, not to mention having a dedicated
There is another example:

  def should_raise_shields():
      # "We only raise Shields when one or more giant
  robots attack,
      # so I can just return that value..."
      return number_of_evil_robots_attacking()

Raise shields when one or more giant robots attack. Ok, that makes sense. But
if the logic is clear, why not wire it to the code directly?

  def should_raise_shields():
      return number_of_evil_robots_attacking() >= 1

It’s 3 more symbols, but they make the function absolutely transparent for a
reader. There is no need for a comment anymore.

It’s tempting to think that following some rules will automatically make you a
better programmer. But it doesn’t work this way. It’s not about the rules, it’s
about when to follow them and when not.

Here, let me show you.
Rule 1. Use long descriptive names when necessary

 def inv(a):
     return adj(a) / det(a)


 def inverse_of(matrix):
     return adjugate_of(matrix) /

Rule 2. Use short mnemonic names when possible

 linsolve([matrix_value_b + resuting_point_x0 -
 resuting_point_x1*matrix_value_h - resuting_point_x1,
           matrix_value_e + resuting_point_y0 -
 resuting_point_y1*matrix_value_h - resuting_point_y1,
           matrix_value_a + resuting_point_x0 -
 resuting_point_x2*matrix_value_g - resuting_point_x2,
           matrix_value_d + resuting_point_y0 -
 resuting_point_y2*matrix_value_g - resuting_point_y2],
   (matrix_value_a, matrix_value_b, matrix_value_d,


 linsolve([b + x0 -   x1*h   -   x1,
           e + y0 -   y1*h   -   y1,
           a + x0 -   x2*g   -   x2,
           d + y0 -   y2*g   -   y2],
          (a, b, d,   e))
Rule 3. Prefer function names to comments for clarity

 def are_all_numbers_in(list_of_everything):
     for element in list_of_everything:
              # throws ValueError
              # if element isn’t a number
         except ValueError:
              return False
     return True


 def fails_on_cast_to_float(s):
          return False
     except ValueError:
          return True

 def are_all_numbers_in(list_of_everything):
     for element in list_of_everything:
         if fails_on_cast_to_float(element):
             return False
     return True
Rule 4. Don’t clarify what is already clear enough

 def hash_of_file(name):
     with open(name, 'r') as text:
         return str(hash(

 def file_is_xml(file_name):
     return file_name.endswith('.xml')

 def name_belongs_to_file(file_name):
     return os.path.isfile(file_name)

 def name_belongs_to_xml(name):
     return name_belongs_to_file(name) \
            and file_is_xml(name)

 def print_name_and_hash(name, xml_hash):
     print name + ': ' + hash_of_file(file_name)

 def traverse_current_directory(do_for_each):
     for file_name in os.listdir('.'):

 def print_or_not_hash_for(file_name):
     if name_belongs_to_xml( file_name ):
         xml_hash = hash_of_file(file_name)
             print_name_and_hash(file_name, xml_hash)


 for file_name in os.listdir('.'):
     if os.path.isfile( file_name ) \
     and file_name.endswith('.xml'):
         with open(file_name, 'r') as xml:
             hash_of_xml = str(hash(
         print file_name + ': ' + hash_of_xml

Rule 5. Use list comprehension to transform lists

 def matrix_of_floats(matrix_of_anything):
     n = len(matrix_of_anything)
     n_i = len(matrix_of_anything[0])
     new_matrix_of_floats = []
     for i in xrange(0, n):
         row = []
         for j in xrange(0, n_i):
     return new_matrix_of_floats


 def matrix_of_floats(matrix_of_anything):
     return [[float(a_ij) for a_ij in a_i]
             for a_i in matrix_of_anything]
Rule 6. Just because you can do anything with list
comprehensions, doesn’t mean you should

  def contains_duplicate(array):
      return sum([sum([1 if a_i-rot_ij else 0
                  for a_i, rot_ij in zip(array, rot_i)])
                  for rot_i in [array[i:] + array[:i]
                  for i in range(1, len(array))]]
                 ) != len(array) * (len(array) - 1)


  def contains_duplicate(array):
      for i in range(len(array)):
          for j in range(i):
              if array[i] == array[j]:
                   return True
      return False

I hope you see the pattern. Each even rule seemingly contradicts the odd one.
But there is no actual contradiction because they all depend on the context.
Every rule is so pointless without the context, it can’t even contradict another
rule properly.

Unfortunately, this means that you can’t learn to write good code only by
following the rules. It’s tempting to think so, but it just doesn’t work this way. It
is, of course, good to know idioms and best practices, but it never ends there.
You have to go beyond the idioms. Beyond the rules.

As far as I’m concerned, there is only one sure way to improve your coding
skills, but it’s so straightforward and unappealing, no one would write a book
on it. No one would promote it at a conference. There are, however, seldom
blog posts on the topic, but they largely go unnoticed.

So here it is. The one truly working way.

To learn to write good code you have to write a shit-metric-ton of bad code.

And that’s it. Do wrong. Make mistakes. Learn from them. You are a
programmer, not a surgeon, or a race car driver. You can afford to practice on
your own mistakes and not to kill anyone!

This is a privilege, enjoy it.
Why Erlang is the only true computer
Imagine there is something wrong with the water pressure in your house. You
have to call the plumber service. They say that there is a guy, who is honest, and
capable, and has a Ph.D. in plumbing, but… He doesn’t speak English well. He
came from Tajikistan and only speaks fluent Tajik. But it just so happens that
you studied Tajik in college, so you say that they send the guy immediately.

When he arrives, you describe the problem (in Tajik), and he gets to work. Soon
enough he finds the problem and tries to report it to you, apparently waiting for
a reaction. But for some reason he doesn’t use Tajik to report it, he uses
English. Which… He doesn’t really know. Even if you tell him explicitly (in
Tajik) that you don’t understand, he will not switch to Tajik; he will only repeat
the same phrase louder.

Which doesn’t help to build a dialog at all.

Nobody knows why he consistently chooses to reply in the language he doesn’t
speak well instead of his own. That you do, by the way. It is absurdly irritating,
but that’s just how things work. It’s how they have always been. Whatever he’s
meaning to say, makes perfect sense in his own tongue. But what he speaks
aloud is basically a bad English mixed with professional jargonisms and Tajik

Which feels somehow like this:
In function ‘int main()’: 19:16: error: cannot bind
‘std::ostream {aka std::basic_ostream<char>}’ lvalue
to ‘std::basic_ostream<char>&&’ In file included from
/usr/include/c++/4.9/iostream: 39:0, from 2:
/usr/include/c++/4.9/ostream:602:5: note:
initializing argument 1 of
‘std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::operator<<
(std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>&&, const _Tp&)
[with _CharT = char; _Traits = std::char_traits<char>;
_Tp = Element]’ operator<<basic_ostream<_CharT,
_Traits>&& __os,
const _Tp& __x)
Ok, it isn’t about plumbing anymore. It never was about plumbing. It’s about
how we communicate with the machine. A programming language is something
we use to tell it what to do, but the machine tries to speak back in English when
something gets wrong. Computers don’t speak English well, although they are
good at processing formal languages. And presumably, the one who writes in a
formal language should be able to read it back without a problem. Wouldn’t it
be better, if the compiler or interpreter would respond in the same language it
gets its commands in?

So far the only languages I know that report errors in itself are Erlang, Elixir
which is a successor of Erlang, and Ocaml that abandons this feature in favor of
English. If you know more, please let me know.

Here’s a simple example from “Programming Erlang”:

  1> Point = {point, 10, 45}.
  2> {point, C, C} = Point.
  =ERROR REPORT==== 28-Oct-2006::17:17:00 ===
  Error in process <0.32.0> with exit value:

The string in bold is the error message, the rest is just a preamble from the
interpreter. Indeed, it isn’t entirely convenient for the casual reader. You have to
know Erlang to read its errors. But since you still need to know Erlang to write
the code that causes them, it’s fine.

The alternatives are much worse. With informal and non-standardized error
messaging you have to know not only the programming language itself but its
error messaging Pidgin as well. Every C++ practitioner can confirm that
reading STL messages is an art by itself. It takes knowledge, patience,
determination, and occasionally a crystal ball to build a firm understanding of a
reported problem.

For instance, the error message from above reads as “sorry, I can’t print out the
variable for you, because its type doesn’t have a << operator.”
Normally, the language is something you can build a dialog in. Programming
languages are an unlucky exemption. Historically, it was more important to tell
a computer what to do rather than the opposite. When you write a small single-
threaded program you can hope that there will be no errors whatsoever so you
don’t really need a reporting at all. Error reporting is viewed as an auxiliary

Erlang, however, aims at building highly complex distributed systems. Errors
are not only most likely to happen, they are inherent to the nature of the
domain. Everything that could go wrong eventually will. And you better have a
decent reporting language for that. And since Erlang is a decent language on its
own, well, it all just makes sense.

In Erlang, you can have a two-way dialog between you and the machine. The
very fact that you can have a conversation with a computer, makes Erlang not
only a programming language but a true computer language.
The invisible Prolog in C++
It is well known that C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language. It
combines procedural, functional, object-oriented, and generic programming
features in an arsenal of things to shoot your foot with.

A little less known that it also employs the logic programming paradigm. It
doesn't expose its features directly, yet understanding the paradigm while not
enriching your arsenal per se makes you much less prone to metaphorical self-

What's logic programming?
Logic programming is about making the computer deduce facts for you. You
write down the things you know, write down the rules that hold true for these
things, and then you ask the question. Like, “who killed John F. Kennedy”?

Of course, the computer can only work with the facts you provide. It doesn't do
surveillance or interrogation for you. It doesn't have the intuition. But it does
the deduction fast and robust, that's all we can expect from the machine.

The most popular logic programming language now is Prolog. It was invented
in France, and its name stands for “programmation en logique”, which is in
itself quite logical.

Let's take a quick tour of Prolog to see what we can learn from it.

In Prolog you have terms to store data. Terms are:

   • atom — basically any word or even a full sentence. Like: x, alice, or
      ‘year 2016’.
   • number — floating point or integer.
   • compound term — complex data type constructed of atoms and numbers.
      This includes lists and strings.
You build relations between data with rules and facts. When you want to say
that “Alice likes Bob”, Alice and Bob are the data and likes is the relation. In
Prolog, you can write it down like this.

  likes(alice, bob).

Such relations are called facts in Prolog. There are also rules which are
conditional facts. Let’s say Alice likes someone who is kind, and intelligent and
writes in C++. The rule for that would be:

  likes(alice, Person) :-
    writes(Person, cpp).

The Person is a Prolog variable. Syntactically, variables always begin with a
capital letter. Semantically, they can denote any term that fits the conditions.

Logic programming is all about deduction. You have a set of terms, known
facts, and rules. Then you want to know something you didn’t know before. For
instance, if we're going to know if Alice likes Bob according to her rule above,
we have to introduce Bob with a set of facts and then ask Prolog like this:

  ?- likes(alice, bob).

Prolog programming is declarative. This means that we only have to give it
rules and facts, but not the way the facts and rules should be checked. Prolog
finds the way for us.
So, given the following set of facts, does Alice like Bob or not?

  writes(bob, cpp).
  writes(bob, assembly).
  writes(george, cpp).
  writes(steven, prolog).

  likes(alice, Person) :-
    writes(Person, cpp).

  ?- likes(alice, bob).
Yes, she does. Bob is kind, intelligent, and writes in C++. According to our
facts and rules, Alice likes him.

Analogies in C++
C++ doesn't have logic deduction as a language feature. But it has something
similar. It has type deduction which is very close conceptually. Now let's
translate our Prolog program into C++.

Classes will be our atoms.

Polymorphic functions will be our facts.

And a template function will be our rule.

  // people
  class Alice{};
  class Bob{};
  class George{};
  class Steven{};

  // languages
  class Cpp{};
  class Prolog{};
  class Assembly{};

  // facts
  void kind(Bob);
  void kind(George);
  void kind(Steven);
  void intelligent(Bob);
  void intelligent(Steven);
  void writes(Bob, Cpp);
  void writes(Bob, Assembly);
  void writes(George, Cpp);
  void writes(Steven, Prolog);
  // the rule
  template <typename Person> void likes(Alice, Person
      writes(person, Cpp());

  // check the rule for Bob
  int main()
      likes(Alice(), Bob());

Type deduction is not entirely the same as logic programming, but in many
regards, it works the same. The program compiles only if the compiler deduces
all the types correctly. The very fact of compilation is the answer to our

So does Alice like Bob in C++?

Yes, she still does. The program compiles only if there is a compilable likes
function for Alice and Bob. And our only defined likes is only compilable for
Bob if there are compilable kind, intelligent, and writes Cpp functions for him.
And there are.

Logic programming v.s. type deduction
While being similar, type deduction differs from logic programming in one
crucial way. I guess it would be best to illustrate it with the example.

I stole this idea from Bernardo Pires. If you got interested in Prolog and logic
programming in general, please read his article. He uses Prolog to color map of
Germany in four colors. We will try to do the same with C++ and the map of
                 By Albedo-ukr [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons

At first, we would have to define colors.

  // colors
  class Yellow{};
  class Blue{};
  class White{};
  class Green{};
  void color(Yellow);
  void color(Blue);
  void color(White);
  void color(Green);
We need to generalize them to use in our rules, and that's one possible way to
do that.

  // AnyColor object can be Yellow, Blue, White or Green
  class AnyColor : public Yellow, Blue, White, Green {};

Unlike C++, Prolog has an operator to declare data inequality. So when
Bernardo wants to declare a rule stating that all the neighboring regions should
have different colors, he writes this:

  neighbor(StateAColor, StateBColor) :-
      StateAColor \= StateBColor.

We can do the same in modern C++, but it gets needlessly tricky, so we'll define
inequality as a simple set of facts instead.

  // color inequality (instead of \= orerator)
  void different(Yellow, Blue);
  void different(Yellow, White);
  void different(Yellow, Green);
  void different(Blue, Yellow);
  void different(Blue, White);
  void different(Blue, Green);
  void different(White, Yellow);
  void different(White, Blue);
  void different(White, Green);
  void different(Green, Yellow);
  void different(Green, Blue);
  void different(Green, White);
Next, we want every two adjacent regions to have different colors. Here's a rule
for that.

  // neighborhood rule
  template <typename Region1Color, typename
  void neighbor(Region1Color, Region2Color)
      different(Region1Color(), Region2Color());
Now we have to program the map of Ukraine as pairs of adjacent regions.

  // map: neighborhood of regions
  template <typename ZK, typename LV, typename IF,
            typename VL, typename CZ, typename TP,
            typename RV, typename KM, typename ZH,
            typename VN, typename OD, typename KV,
            typename CK, typename CH, typename MK,
            typename KR, typename PT, typename KS,
            typename SM, typename DR, typename CR,
            typename ZP, typename KH, typename DN,
            typename LH>
  void ukraine(ZK zk, LV lv, IF iv, VL vl, CZ cz, TP tp,
               RV rv, KM km, ZH zh, VN vn, OD od, KV kv,
               CK ck, CH ch, MK mk, KR kr, PT pt, KS ks,
               SM sm, DR dr, CR cr, ZP zp, KH kh, DN dn,
               LH lh)
    neighbor(zk, lv);neighbor(zk, iv);neighbor(lv, vl);
    neighbor(lv, rv);neighbor(lv, tp);neighbor(lv, iv);
    neighbor(iv, tp);neighbor(iv, cz);neighbor(vl, rv);
    neighbor(tp, rv);neighbor(tp, km);neighbor(tp, cz);
    neighbor(cz, km);neighbor(cz, vn);neighbor(rv, km);
    neighbor(rv, zh);neighbor(km, zh);neighbor(km, vn);
    neighbor(zh, kv);neighbor(zh, vn);neighbor(vn, kv);
    neighbor(vn, ck);neighbor(vn, kr);neighbor(vn, od);
    neighbor(od, kr);neighbor(od, mk);neighbor(kv, ch);
    neighbor(kv, pt);neighbor(kv, ck);neighbor(ck, pt);
    neighbor(ck, kr);neighbor(ch, sm);neighbor(ch, pt);
    neighbor(mk, kr);neighbor(mk, dr);neighbor(mk, ks);
    neighbor(kr, pt);neighbor(kr, dr);neighbor(pt, sm);
    neighbor(pt, kh);neighbor(pt, dr);neighbor(sm, kh);
    neighbor(ks, cr);neighbor(ks, zp);neighbor(dr, kh);
    neighbor(dr, dn);neighbor(dr, zp);neighbor(zp, dn);
    neighbor(kh, lh);neighbor(kh, dn);neighbor(dn, lh);
And finally, we write the function that starts type deduction for every region.

  // try to color map of Ukraine
  int main()

Given that there are no typos and we wrote down all our rules and facts
correctly, will this program compile or not?
No, it will not. Although there are a lot of possible colorings, the compiler
wouldn't find them. The crucial difference between type deduction and logic
programming is that type deduction is unambiguous.

You can color a map in many different ways, but the compiler has to produce
one and only one program.

When you write in C++ you actually write in two languages at once 3.

First is C++, and the second one is invisible Prolog.

If written properly, the second program is ultimately helpful. If you build your
type relations right, every compilation will reassure you that your expectations
about the entity relations are also correct. Type deduction will work just as the
logic deduction. Pragmatically, this means fewer bugs and fewer surprises in

However, if being neglected, it turns your code into an untangleable mess of
incomprehencibles really-really fast. Every new rule not only adds but
multiplies the complexity, so it tends to grow in geometric progression.

And that's why acknowledging the invisible language is even more important
than mastering the visible one.
One reason you probably shouldn’t bet your
whole career on JavaScript
I fell in love with JavaScript long before it was cool. I’m not sure about the
exact date and time, but definitely before StackOverflow and probably after
GMail announced its beta. Back in the day, it was used mostly to clutter
innocent web sites with bells and whistles nobody wanted. Like these January
waltzing snowflakes reminding you that Christmas is over and so is bourbon
and you have no friends.

A roommate of mine had friends, and he introduced me to the guy who was
deep in this emerging front-end thing. And this guy told me the two biggest
secrets of JavaScript: it’s not Java, and it’s not script. Well, everybody knows
this now, but at that time knowing that you have a full-power multi-paradigm
language in basically every browser in the world was like urban legend coming
to life. It was like learning that your favorite toothpaste is actually made of
cocaine, you just don’t rub it into your dents hard enough.

I got hooked. And I wrote pretty bizarre things in JavaScript. Like a
multivariate function optimizer, that could infer variable names from a string
expression, and then find their values in a local optimum. All in less than 100
lines of code. Not because I really had to, though, but because I could. The
language combining dynamic typing with functional capabilities, JavaScript
was arguably the most versatile, the most “easy to do weird things” language
between the mainstream ones.

Now, of course, everything is made of cocaine. Every mainstream language is
multi-paradigm now, every one has functional programming; and dynamic
typed ones have type annotations, and static typed ones have variable types
instead. And this brings us to an unpleasant conclusion. JavaScript is just not
that exciting as a language anymore.
Good ideas are not a privilege now, but a commodity. They transfer freely from
one standardization committee to another making all the mainstream languages
more and more alike. If I start jogging tomorrow and change my drinking
preferences to carrot juice, I could live up to that time when all the mainstream
programming languages will become the same.

JavaScript was holding its dominance in front-end for too long. Basically, all its
glory comes not from the ingenious design, but from the simple thing that it
became de-facto standard on the wave of rising bandwidth and processor power.
Now, as everybody gets more focused on performance and power economy, the
whole thing is being redesigned.

Come to think about, the way things work now is rather stupid. I mean, in order
to have depressive snowflakes on your screen, you have to get a JavaScript
source from a server, then run a lexical analysis on it, syntax analysis and
semantic analysis, then a bunch of machine-dependent optimizations; and only
then the essential part — machine level optimizations and machine code
compilation. Why do we want to do all of it on every client, if not for every
request, when we can do most of the work once and on the server-side?

And here comes the solution. WebAssembly addresses this exact problem. It’s a
binary executable format for browsers. It promises to make everything better,
faster, more robust, more reliable, more maintainable. And it also makes
JavaScript irrelevant.

Now every language that can compile to WebAssembly, which is basically
every compilable language ever, will work for front-end development. Java,
Python, C#, C++, even Fortran if you’d like. So JavaScript would not be the
only option soon enough. The very first time in its existence it would face
competition in its own domain.

Not that the competition will necessarily kill JavaScript. Technically, Objective-
C was not killed by Swift. It is still quite popular, just not like in the good old
days. And Delphi wasn’t exactly slaughtered by C#. And Lisp machines didn’t
entirely lose to Unix all at once. And, you might not believe me, but there is
still rather active development going in Fortran as well.

You should only realize, that every career choice is a gamble. Nothing is for
sure. And nothing is for life. Well, unless you’re going to live a really short one.
JavaScript is on top of its game right now. It looks big and shiny and promising.
But technologies change. Everything does.

WebAssembly will definitely be a huge game-changer for the JavaScript world.
And I’m not even sure, there will be a JavaScript world some 10 or 20 years
from now.
You don't have to learn assembly to read
Reading disassembly is more like reading tracks than reading a book. To read a
book you have to know the language but reading tracks, although it gets better
with skills and experience, mostly requires attentiveness and logical thinking.

Most of the time we read disassembly only to answer one simple question: does
the compiler do what we expect it to do? In 3 simple exercises, I’ll show you
that often enough you too can answer this question even if you have no
previous knowledge of assembly. I’ll use C++ as a source language, but what
I’m trying to show is more or less universal, so it doesn’t matter if you write in
C or Swift, C#, or Rust. If you compile to any kind of machine code — you can
benefit from understanding your compiler.

1. Compile-time computation
Any decent compiler tries to make your binary code not only correct but fast.
This means doing as little work in run time as possible. Sometimes it can even
conduct the whole computation in compile-time, so your machine code will
only contain the pre-computed answer.

This source code defines the number of bits in a byte and returns the size of int
in bits.

  static int BITS_IN_BYTE = 8;

  int main() {
      return sizeof(int)*BITS_IN_BYTE;

The compiler knows the size of an int. Let's say, for the target platform it is 4
bytes. We also set the number of bits in a byte explicitly. Since all we want is a
simple multiplication, and both numbers are known during the compilation, a
compiler can simply compute the resulting number itself instead of generating
the code that computes the same number each time it's being executed.

Although, this is not something guaranteed by the standard. A compiler may or
may not provide this optimization.

Now look at two possible disassemblies for this source code and deduce what
variant does compile-time computation and what doesn’t.

    BITS_IN_BYTE:                          Main:
      .long 8                                mov eax, 32
    main:                                    ret
      mov eax, DWORD PTR
      sal eax, 2
Of course, the one on the right does.

On 32-bit platform int's size is 4 bytes, which is 32 bits, which is exactly the
number in the code.

You might not know that an integer function conventionally returns output in
eax which is a register. There are quite a few registers but most important for us
are the general purpose registers, more specifically eax, ebx, ecx, and edx.
Their names respectively are: accumulator, base, counter, and data.

They are not necessarily interchangeable. You can think of them as ultrafast
predefined variables of known size. For instance, rax is 64 bits long. The lower
32 bits of it is accessible by the name eax. The lower 16 bit of it as ax, which in
its own turn consists of two bytes ah and al. These are all the parts of the same
register. Registers do not reside in the RAM, so you can't read and write any
register by the address.

The square brackets usually indicate some address manipulation. E. g.

  mov rax, dword ptr [BITS_IN_BYTE]

This reads as “put whatever lives by the address of BITS_IN_BYTE in the
rax register as a double word”.

The code on the right already has an answer in it, so it doesn't even need
address manipulations.

2. Function inlining
Calling a function implies some overhead by preparing input data in the
particular order; then starting the execution from another piece of memory; then
preparing output data; and then returning back.

Not that it is all too slow but if you only want to call a function once, you don’t
have to actually call the function. It just makes sense to copy or “inline” the
function's body to the place it is called from and skip all the formalities.
Compilers can often do this for you so you don't even have to bother.

If the compiler makes such an optimization, this code:

  inline int square(int x)              {
      return x * x;

  int main(int argc, char** argv)                  {
      return square(argc);

Virtually becomes this:

  // not really a source code, just explaining the idea
  int main(int argc, char** argv) {
      return argc * argc;

But the standard does not promise that all the functions marked as inline shall
get inlined. It's more of a suggestion than a directive.

Now look at these two disassembly variants below and choose the one where
the function gets inlined after all.

    main:                                     square(int):
      imul edi, edi                             imul edi, edi
      mov eax, edi                              mov eax, edi
       ret                                      ret
                                                sub rsp, 8
                                                call square(int)
                                                add rsp, 8
Not really a mystery either. It’s the one on the left.

You might not even know, that the instruction to call a function is really called
the call. It stores a special register that points to the next instruction after the
call in the stack and then sets it to the function's address. A processor hence
jumps to run the function. The function then uses ret to get a stored address
from the stack back to the register, and make the processor jump back to from
where it has been called.

Since the disassembly on the left doesn't even contain any recall of square, the
function has to be inlined anyway.

3. Loop unrolling
Just like calling functions, going in loops implies some overhead. You have to
increment the counter; then compare it against some number; then jump back to
the loop's beginning.

Compilers know that in some context it is more effective to unroll the loop. It
means that some piece of code will actually be repeated several times in a row
instead of messing with the counter comparison and jumping here and there.

Let's say we have this piece of code:

  int main(int argc, char**) {
      int result = 1;
      for(int i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
           result *= argc;
      return result;

The compiler has all the reasons to unroll such a simple loop, but it might as
well choose not to.
Which disassembly has the unrolled loop?

   main:                                   main:
     mov eax, 1                              mov eax, edi
     mov ecx, 3                              imul eax, edi
   .LBB0_1:                                  imul eax, edi
     imul eax, edi                           ret
     dec ecx
     jne .LBB0_1
It's the one on the right.

You don’t have to know that j<*> is the family of jump instructions. There is
one unconditional jump jmp, and a bunch of conditional jumps like: jz — jump
when zero; jg — jump when greater; or, like in our code, jne — jump when not
equal. These react to the Boolean flags previously set by the processor.

The code on the right clearly has a repeating pattern, while the one on the left
has a number three that is the loop's exit condition, and that could be enough to
make a conclusion.

You can argue that these examples were deliberately simplified. That these are
not some real-life examples. This is true to some degree. I refined them to be
more demonstrative. But conceptually they are all taken from my own practice.

Using static dispatch instead of dynamic made my image processing pipeline up
to 5 times faster. Repairing broken inlining helped to win back 50% of the
performance for an edge-to-edge distance function. And changing counter type
to enable loop unrolling won me about 10% performance gain on matrix
transformations, which is not much, but since all it took to achieve was simply
changing short int to size_t in one place, I think of is as a good return of

Apparently, old versions of MSVC fail to unroll loops with counters of non-
native type. Who would have thought? Well, even if you know this particular
quirk, you can't possibly know every other quirk of every compiler out there, so
looking at disassembly once in a while might be good for you.

And you don't even have to spend years learning every assembly dialect.
Reading disassembly is often easier than it looks.
Fortran is still a thing
In 2017 NASA announced a code optimization competition only to cancel it
shortly after. The rules were simple. There is a Navier-Stokes equations solver
used to model aerodynamics, and basically, the one who makes it run the fastest
on the Pleiades supercomputer wins the first prize.

There were a few caveats though. The applicant had to be a US citizen at least
18 years of age, and the code to optimize had to be in Fortran.

Fortran is not the most popular language in the programmer’s community.
Many believe that it’s complex and outdated. Programming in Fortran is
perceived as riding a horse-driven carriage to work. Fortran? Isn’t it something
that Amish do?

Many thought that the competition will never start due to the lack of applicants.
In fact, it was canceled for the exact opposite reason.

Quoting NASA's Press Release:

      «The extremely high number of applicants, more than 1,800, coupled with
      the difficulty in satisfying the extensive vetting requirements to control the
      public distribution of the software made it unlikely we would achieve the
      challenge’s original objectives in a timely manner.»
               Marco Librero, NASA Ames Research Center [Public domain],
                                via Wikimedia Commons

Fortran is not, of course, outdated, and it’s not at all complex. In fact, it has
grown into these myths exactly because it is that good at what it does. It was
designed to make number-crunching easy and efficient. Its users are scientists
and engineers; not computer scientists and software engineers, but the real ones.
And when engineers have a tool for the problem, they solve the problem with
the tool. The problem comes first, not the code.

That’s how the complexity myth has started. Most of the code you see in
Fortran is indeed complex. But this is because:

a) the problem behind it is complex;

b) the code was written by domain specialists and not programmers.

Fortran is simple enough for domain specialists to write bad code and achieve
good results with it.
And as for the outdatedness, the current Fortran standard is Fortran 2018.
Fortran is constantly evolving one little step after another. The biggest holding
factor here is its mission. It must remain simple for real engineers.

However, the modern Fortran already has modules, objects, generics, and built-
in support for parallel computing. The foot shooting area grows steadily to meet
the fiats of the modern world.

It still excels in the good old structured programming. It has features that
mainstream C-like languages lack. For instance, it can exit or continue a loop
from a nested loop.

  rows: do i = 1, 10
    columns: do j = 1, 10
      if (a(i, j) == 0.) exit rows
    enddo columns
  enddo rows

If has case statement with ranges.

  integer :: temp_c

  ! Temperature in Celsius!
  select case (temp_c)
  case (:-1)
    write (*,*) 'Below freezing'
  case (0)
    write (*,*) 'Freezing point'
  case (1:20)
    write (*,*) 'It is cool'
  case (21:33)
    write (*,*) 'It is warm'
  case (34:)
   write (*,*) 'This is Texas!'
  end select
And it can use an array of indexes to access another array.

  real, dimension(5) :: a = [ 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ]
  integer, dimension(2) :: i = [ 2, 4 ]

  print *, a(i)          ! prints 4. 8.

There is a brief introduction into modern Fortran by Lars Koesterke. If you
think Fortran hasn’t changed since the 60s, please look through it. You might
get surprised.

So Fortran is not complex and it’s not outdated. Now how come it went
underground in the modern world?

The answer here is actually the same as for “where do old programmers go?”
They mostly stay in business, but according to the Martin’s lawn, as the number
of programmers doubles every five years, they get vastly outnumbered by the
younger folks. They just dissolve in a mass. But this is endemic for the software
industry only. Fortran users are mostly the real engineers and their numbers
don’t grow exponentially. There is more or less the same amount of Fortran
users, old and young, as it was some 30 or 40 years ago when Fortran was at its

In a way, it has been at its peak all that time. It’s the world around that has gone
crazy. Languages come and go, paradigms ripe and rot, the whole software
business is a part of the fashion industry now. But when you want your plane to
fly, you still need to do the maths with your trusty Fortran.

That’s the beauty of the things that work; they don’t have to change much.
Learn you a Lisp in 0 minutes

But why?
Learning a language, you are not going to write in professionally, is like visiting
a country you are not going to move in to. It may be tiring, but it’s fun,
educational and it makes you appreciate other cultures. And Lisp is particularly
fascinating to learn because of its influence on modern programming. You
might see traces of Lisp in the most unexpected technologies like
WebAssembly or GCC internal representation.

The only reason not to learn Lisp, or any other language, is the amount of effort
it usually takes. But! If you only want to know the very basics of Lisp, you
wouldn’t have to spend any effort at all.

But how?
Since you are reading this article, you probably know English. And this also
means that you know a bit of French as well. Words like “concept”, “culture”,
“action”, “instinct”, “machine”, “science”, and many more are actually shared
between the two languages. Words like these are called “cognates”, and the
word “cognate” is almost a cognate itself.

This happens because of long-lasting French influence on the English language.
And the same goes for Lisp too. Its ideas and concepts are so widespread
among modern languages that if you have any substantial experience in
programming at all — you automatically know some Lisp.

I've prepared several exercises so you could prove to yourself that you do know
a little Lisp. As many languages and dialects belong to the Lisp family, I should
specify that this quiz is based on WeScheme.
The exercises start with very simple things and gradually progress into
obscurity. It’s ok not to get all the answers right, some of them would only work
for programmers with a functional programming background.


1 Which number would this evaluate to?

  (+ 2 2)

2 Does this return true or false?

  (= (+ 2 2) (* 2 2))

3 Is it a, b or c?

  (first (list 'a 'b 'c))

4 Would it print “Apples” or “Oranges”?

  (define apples 5)
  (define oranges 6)
  (if (< apples oranges)
      (printf "Apples")
      (printf "Oranges"))
5 What number would it be?

  (define (dbl x)
    (* 2 x))

  (dbl 2)

6 What number will this result to?

  (define (fact x)
    (if (<= x 1)
        (* x (fact (- x 1)))))

  (fact 3)

7 What would this function do to the list?

  (define (qs xs)
    (if (empty? xs)
        (list )
        (let (
            (middle (first xs))
            (others (rest xs)))
          (let (
               (left (filter (lambda (x) (<= x middle)) others)
               (right (filter (lambda (x) (> x middle)) others)))
            (append (qs left) (cons middle (qs right)))))))

  (qs (list 4 5 1 2 3))

That’s it. The answers are under the baguettes.
By jules / stonesoup (bocadillos-3) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons.
Well, I needed something long to screen the answers, so why not baguettes?
   1. That’s just prefix notation for 2+2, so the answer is 4.
   2. It is true. 2+2 = 2*2.
   3. First element of list (a, b, c) is a.
   4. Apples is just a variable set to 5, and oranges set to 6. 5<6 so it should
      print Apples!.
   5. Function dbl is defined to double the argument. Then it’s called with 2
      as an argument, so the answer is 4.
   6. Function fact returns 1 for anything less than 1 and an argument x
      multiplied to fact(x-1). So, fact(0) = 1, fact(1) = 1*1,
      fact(2) = 2*1*1 and fact(3) = 3*2*1*1 = 6. It is a factorial
      of 3 also known as "3!".
   7. This is a simple quicksort implementation. The list gets split into pieces:
      some middle element, the “left” list with all the other elements lower than
      or equal to middle, and the “right” list with all the other elements greater
      than middle. “Left” and “right” get quicksorted recursively until they’re
      done and the function then returns sorted left + middle +
      sorted right. So the list (4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3) becomes
      sorted: (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

If you have read this far, congratulations! You now know you know Lisp!

If you got five answers right, you would probably be able to write a simple
Gimp plugin on configure Emacs.

If you got all the answers then you have a knack for functional programming. If
you haven’t been working in a functional language before, perhaps you should
consider trying one.

Now what?
Of course, this test covers the very basics of Lisp. It doesn’t even touch the
meta-programming, which is arguably the mightiest Lisp feature. But learning a
bit of Lisp is not the whole point. The test actually shows that you should not
stop at this, but learn more are more languages that you are not going to use
professionally because it's easier than it seems.

Consider this. If practicing with JavaScript, or Python, or C#, or whatever your
primary language is made you unknowingly learn some Lisp, then shouldn’t it
work the other way around as well?

Eric Raymond once wrote:

      “Lisp is worth learning for the profound enlightenment experience you
      will have when you finally get it; that experience will make you a better
      programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use Lisp
      itself a lot.”

But I don’t think Lisp is in any way magical. I think that learning any language
enriches your experience. The more it’s different from what you do every day,
the better. The more you know — the more ideas you have when approaching
any new task. That’s the whole point of linguistic tourism.

If learning new languages, new concepts, and ideas, makes you a better
programmer, then it is not just a waste of time, but an investment in your
professional career.

N’est-ce pas?
Blood, sweat, and C++
I have a theory. But first of all I want you too see this:

  #include <iostream>
  int main() {
      int n = 3;
      int i = 0;
      switch (n % 2) {
      case 0:
      do {
      case 1: ++i;
      } while (--n > 0);
      std::cout << i;

I found it on, which is by itself a great fun and a challenge.
The program is valid, it is legit, it compiles, and it runs. It is an excellent bit for
a quiz and an absolute crap of a code.

C++ is full of quiz material. It has enough obscurities for the whole professional
life. It is just too inconsistent and overcomplicated. It combines 45 years of C
legacy with all the misleads of modern programming.

In my humble fourteen years with C++ I found answers to a lot of questions. I
know what integral promotions are, I know how slicing works, I know how
come we have such a ridiculous switch statement. But there is one question, I
never could answer properly before now. And it is: why are we doing this to

There are better languages. Some are more mature, some are more novel. Some
are more expressive, and some are more versatile. Some are mainstream, and
some are esoteric. There are alternatives. But somehow C++ manages to keep
its popularity, if not regain some in recent years. Why though?
My theory is, C++ programming plays the same strings as the Shackleton’s ad.

In 1914 in order to recruit men for his Endurance expedition, Ernest Shackleton
printed an advertisement in a newspaper and it goes like this.

      Men wanted for hazardous journey. Low wages, bitter cold, long hours of
      complete darkness. Safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in event
      of success.

Needless to say, he found an excessive number of willing men instantly, and the
advertisement has been since regarded as an exemplary piece of copywriting.
Apparently, it is also a myth.

But C++ isn’t. C++ is very very real. It’s not as challenging as the Endurance
expedition but it neither guarantees safe returns.

Perhaps, this is what drags smart people in. The very badness of a language
becomes merit when you want to keep your mind excited in the day to day
work. Java isn’t nearly that dangerous, and C is not that variegated. These are
excellent languages to get the job done, but do they provide the satisfaction of a
good fight?

It probably starts in childhood, when you see your parents going to work and it
almost seems like they disappear every day for nine hours or so. You know, that
they do something there, you’re not stupid, but it’s all seems so boring and
monotonous, it’s almost like they voluntarily go out to non-existence day after
day after day. And then when you grow older, you discover your first fear of
non-existence, but you can’t yet comprehend it, you just make choices that float
you away from it. You need some challenge in life if only to prove that you
don’t just disappear every day for nine hours or so.

Some men go professional boxing; other join the army. Some choose C++.
If I were to invent a programming language
for the 21st century
Quite a few programming languages were already invented in the 21st century.
Swift, Kotlin, and Go are probably among the most popular. However, the
distinctive feature of the 21st-century language design is the absence of any
distinctive features in the languages themselves. The best thing about any of
these is that you can spend a weekend and claim to learn a shiny new thing
without actually learning anything new. They don’t have anything new in them
at all; they are all made by the “something done right” formula, this something
being Objective-C, Java, or C.

While “not being new” is indeed a valuable trait in its own right, the question
arises. Are they really the languages for the 21st century, or are they merely the
reflection on the 20th-century bad programming habits?

If I were to invent a language, I wouldn’t try to fix the past. I would try to
invent a thing that not only works well in the reality of the modern world but
can also evolve properly and stand the test of time. If this requires radical
design decisions, so be it.

1. Down with the syntax!
Modern languages’ syntaxes reflect the freedom of chalk and blackboard put
into the shackles of ASCII. While some elements of notation like arithmetical
signs and brackets are more or less idiomatic, some are just made up for no
reason at all apart from saving the effort of pressing teletype buttons.

Typing is not an issue anymore. We are not obliged to play guess with our

Things like this4:

  (($:@(<#[), (=#[), $:@(>#[)) ({~ ?@#)) ^: (1<#)
...are indeed concise and expressive. And also fun to write. But they do not help
readability and, what’s even more critical, googleability and

The same goes for cryptic function names, return code conventions, and
attributes with obscure meaning. They served us well in the past, saving our
punch-card space, now they deserve retirement.

Ultimately this:

  FILE * test_file = fopen(“test.txt”, “w+”);

Should become something like this:

  create file test.txt for input and output as test_file

We don’t need all those brackets, quotes, asterisks, and semicolons (unless they
really help us to express things better). Syntax highlighting should work instead
of syntax notation just fine.

Things that are cheap in the 21st century: parsing time, computer memory,
online search. Things that are not: development time, programmer’s memory,
effort spent online learning the language specifics. This type of writing should
facilitate the usage of cheaper things over the more expensive ones.

2. Down with the native types!
You probably know this as one of the JavaScript wats.

  > 10.8 / 100

It isn’t, of course, JavaScript specific. In fact, it is not a wat at all, it is a
perfectly correct behavior backed by the well-respected IEEE 754 standard. It’s
just how floating-point numbers are implemented in almost any architecture.
And it’s actually not that bad considering we are trying to squeeze an infinite
amount of real numbers into 32, 64 or even 256 bits.

What mathematicians consider impossible, engineers do by trading off sanity
for possibility. IEEE floating-point numbers are not, in fact, numbers at all.
Maths requires real numbers' addition to have associativity. Floats and doubles
do not always hold this property. Maths requires real numbers to include all the
integers. This is not true even for the same sized float and uint32_t. Maths
requires real numbers to have a zero element. Well, technically, in this regard
IEEE standard exceeds the expectations, as floating-point numbers have not
only one but two zero elements.

And it’s not only about floating-point numbers. Native integers are not much
better. Do you know what happens when you add up two 16-bit integers like

  0xFFFF + 0x0001

Well, nobody knows actually. Intuition tells, that the overflowed number should
be 0x0000. But this is not specified by any worldwide standard; it’s just how it
usually goes with C and with x86-family processors. It may also result in
0xFFFF, or trigger an interrupt, or store some special bit in a special place
signaling that the overflow happened.

It is not specified at all. It differs. While floating-point numbers are just
standardly insane, these are entirely unpredictable.

What I would propose for numeric computations instead is fixed point arbitrary
sized data types with standard defined behavior on underflow, overflow, and
precision loss. Something like this:

  1.000 / 3.000 = 0.333
  0001 + 9999 = overflowed 9999
  0.001 / 2 = underflowed 0
Of course, you don’t have to actually write all the trailing zeros, they should be
implied by the data type definition. But you should be able to select your
maximum and minimum bounds for the type yourself, not just rely on the
current processor's architecture.

Wouldn’t it work much slower then? Yes, it would. But realistically, how often
do you have to program high-performance computations? I suppose unless you
work in a narrow field of research and engineering that requires exactly that,
not very often. And if you do, you have to use specialized hardware and
compilers anyway. I’ll just presume, a typical 21st-century programmer don't
have to solve differential equations very often.

That being said, shouldn’t fast, complex, and unpredictable native types from
the past be an option and not the default?

3. Down with the metalanguaging!
There are brilliant wonderful languages designed not to do the task, but to
create languages that do the task. Racket, Rebol, and Forth to name a few. I love
them all, they are a pure delight to play with. But as you might guess, being fun
is not exactly what makes a language universally popular.

Language leverage, the ability to create new sub-languages for the task, is a
great power, and it pays vastly to have it when you work somewhere on an
isolated island all on your own. Unfortunately, if you write code for other
people to understand, you have to teach them your language along with the
code. And that’s when it gets ugly.

People are generally interested in getting things done, not learning the language
they’d have to forget anyway after things are done. For other people, learning
your language is just an effort that would hardly pay off. Learning something
common and standardized, however, is an investment for life. Therefore, people
will rather reinvent your language in the standard terms than learn it. And there
you go: countless dialects for the single domain; people arguing about
aesthetics, ideology, architecture and all the things that are irrelevant; million
lines of code being written just to be forgotten in months.

Lisp guys went through all of that in the 80s. They figured out that the more of
the practical part of a language is standardized — the better. And they came up
with Common Lisp.

And it’s huge. The INCITS 226–1994 standard consists of 1153 pages. This was
only beaten by C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2011 standard with 1338 pages some 17
years after.

A programming language should not be that huge. Not at all. It’s just that it
should have a decent standard library filled with all the goodies so people
wouldn't have to reinvent them.

It is difficult to have both conciseness and applicability. With C++, we had to
learn this the hard way. I think, to balance things properly, the language for the
21st century should be more domain-specific than not. Since business
applications are currently the biggest mess, perhaps it should address that first
and not some game development or web-design.

The language for the 21st century should be business-oriented, English-like,
and not dependent on any native types.

Wait a minute... Did I just reinvent COBOL?
Yes, I did.

                  By Rainer Gerhards (own work (own card, own photo))
          [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.5–2.0–1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

I have to confess, I deliberately described ancient COBOL's features as ultra-
modern and super-promising to show you one thing. Language features don’t
write the code. You do.

It’s naïve to think that the language is responsible for the quality of code and
that by adding some bells and whistles (or removing some bells and whistles),
we can automatically make everything better. We were not happy with Fortran
and COBOL, so we invented C++ and Java only to be unhappy with them too in
a few decades.

I feel like the core issue lies not in the field of programming. Are we really
unhappy with the languages? Aren’t we unhappy with what we have done in
general? How satisfied are you with the current state of software on a scale
from 1 to -128?

Windows is vulnerable, Visual Studio is sluggish, and Vim is impossible to quit
from. It takes 5 MB of traffic to download a page of text and 100 MB of RAM
to display it. Desktop products are drowning with features nobody wants,
gaming industry survives on patches, and don’t even get me started on banking

Somehow, with all the best practices, with all the methodologies, and with all
the architectural breakthroughs we have acquired through the years, the
software is only becoming worse. And that is truly disappointing, not the
programming languages.

We have to blame something in our frustration. Being software engineers
partially responsible for the world of crappy software, we wouldn’t blame
ourselves, would we? So let’s blame the tools instead! Let’s reinvent COBOL
again and again until one day we’ll invent the one true COBOL for everyone to
be happy with and we will all become happy accordingly.

Probably not going to happen.

So if I were to reinvent a programming language for the 21st century, I would
reinvent being responsible instead. I would reinvent learning your tools; I
would reinvent being attentive to essential details and being merciless to
accidental complexity. Unlike the languages that come and go with fashion, the
things that matter do deserve constant reinvention.
1. As someone on Reddit noted, it’s ironic that every answer for the C quiz is D.
D or Dlang is the C++ done right. It has been designed by Walter Bright and
Anrei Alexandrescu and it is just as brilliant as these two gentlemen are.

2. All the APL snippets in the book were run on the Dyalog APL available
online at There is also a free GNU APL at and there are open source implementations of
derivative languages such as KONA:

3. There is a bidirectional unambiguous correspondence between computer
programs and mathematical proofs. It has a fancy name — Curry–Howard
isomorphism. The invisible Prolog is, of course, just a metaphor.

4. It is a real piece of code written in a real language. It’s a quicksort in J. J is
another language designed by Kenneth E. Iverson. In a way, it’s a re-invention
of APL 25 years after. You might not believe me again, but it’s even simpler
than APL once you get to know it.
One final note.

This is a free e-book. It doesn’t advertise anything. I get no profit from it.

I know that some people are uncomfortable with getting something without
giving anything in return. If this is the case, please give me your feedback.

I’d appreciate any kind of feedback. Positive feedback powers me to keep
writing and negative feedback pushes me into doing it better.

Write a tweet mentioning @wordsandbuttons; or a blog post with just a few
lines and a link to That’s how I’d
know how to find it.

Or write to me directly:

                                                         Waiting to hear from you,

                                                                Oleksandr Kaleniuk

So You Think You Know C?

Authors Oleksandr Kaleniuk

License CC0-1.0