DOKK Library

Triage Training System (TTS)

Authors David Dorhout

License CC-BY-3.0

                        System (TTS)

 David Dorhout- Dorhout R&D LLC
Project ID Number: micro13DD297
  Triage Training System Report
    A simple, cost-effective way to create and manage realistic mass injury simulations and assess the
    effectiveness of the response team




    The Triage Training System (TTS) provides a simple, mobile way to dynamically manage large groups of
    “victims” in a mass injury simulation by providing individual instructions on how each “victim” should act
    based on their unique injury. The TTS also simulates life signs such as a pulse. In addition, it
    simultaneously collects “treatment” data on how each of the victims were assisted (pulse and airways)
    and sorted in real time by the medics.

    This new system is more cost-effective than current methods because it: 1) Reduces training preparation
    time for both coordinators and participants, 2) Allows everyday actors without specialized medical
    knowledge (wider pool of actors) to portray realistic scenarios, and 3) Uses off-the-shelf technology to
    build the devices which saves costs associated with custom hardware.



Coordinator starts the                    Each actors playing a “victim” is read individual instructions based on
simulation, monitors                      which combination of 12 wounds the coordinator may have selected for
progress, and advances                    their character and when the coordinator wants to “activate” that
the simulation                            character allowing for progressive simulations with multiple “events”

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The Triage Training System has two main parts. The first system is the “Acting Coach” that each actor
playing a “victim” wears and the second system is the “Coordinator’s Tablet” that the coordinator uses
to direct and manage the simulation.

              Acting Coach                                     Coordinator’s Tablet

Acting Coach
The Acting Coach is a small, wearable device that:

       Communicates with the Coordinator’s Tablet
       Gives individualized audio instructions to the actor playing the victim
       Simulates life signs consistent with the simulated injury
       Monitors sensors that record and transmit the paramedic’s actions in assessing the victim’s
       Records and transmits what triage level the paramedic assesses them at (Dead, Immediate,
        Delay, or Minor)

The small form factor and rugged design of
the Acting Coach allows for more realistic
simulations under inclement weather. The
simplicity of design and interface allows for
less “training the victims” and more “training
the medics” than current methods while
simultaneously allowing for more complex
scenarios that have multiple phases just like
real disasters.

                                                           Acting Coach without cover

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Acting Coach Major Systems



                                                                                  Bottom Board
                            #5 #12     #6

1. Propeller chip on a Parallax Demo Board controlling the
   Acting Coach system
2. Twelve unique injuries roughly divided into three groups
   (Airway, Circulation/Bleeding, Shock/Nerves system) of                             #2
   switches with four levels of severity located on the top board
   (image to the Right). The coordinator just selects which
   injury(s) they want for that scenario.
3. XBee Pro (range- 1 mile outside) in API mode provides two-
   way communication between the Coordinator and each actor
4. Emic2 text-to-speech module provides audio instructions to the actor      Top Board
   playing the victim while allowing the victim to remain in character
5. Replay button allows the actor to replay the last set of instructions
6. Air pressure sensor that monitors both:
       o If the paramedic checks to see if they can revive a non-
            breathing victim
       o If paramedic uses the correct technique
7. RFID tag reader for reading which trauma level tag that the paramedic
   assess the victim at (Dead, Immediate, Delay, or Minor)
8. RFID tags for assigning trauma levels (Dead, Immediate, Delay, or
   Minor) [not shown]                                                                    #10
9. RFID LED indicator lights that indicate that the RFID tag has been read
   and what the victim’s trauma level is                                      Uncovered
                                                                             Pulse Monitor
                                  Dorhout R&D LLC Page 4 of 7
    10. Pulse monitoring button that is worn on the victim’s arm, leg, or neck
    11. Pulse motor vibrates the correct intensity and duration to simulate the pulse of a victim with
        those injuries. The motor is strategically located directly next to the pulse button so that the
        paramedic can use the correct technique for checking the victim’s pulse without breaking
    12. Audio jack for actor’s headphones

Coordinator’s Tablet
The Coordinator’s Tablet is a small portable device that the coordinator uses to:

       Simultaneously start and end the simulation for all of the participants
       Direct the actions of the “victims”
       Monitor the paramedic’s responses
       Advance the simulation for more realistic, multiphase simulations that could have multiple
        groups of victims that would simulate multiple attacks or explosions
       Escalate the simulation by increasing the injuries of any of the victims who did not have their
        wounds correctly assisted or who had not yet been treated
       The small size and rugged construction allows the coordinator to have mobility and is discreet
        enough that they could remain anonymous (if desired) while walking throughout the simulation
       The flexibility of choosing wounds and wound groups helps recreate the chaos of emergencies

                                                                                      #2 B

                            #2 A                                   #3                 #4
    1. Propeller chip on a Parallax Demo Board controlling the Coordinator’s Tablet
    2. Touch screen for user-friendly interface access and simulation monitoring (2A- adaptor board;
       2B- touch screen)
    3. XBee Pro (range- 1 mile outside) in API mode provides two-way communication between the
       Coordinator and each actor
    4. Weather-resistant Pelican case provides protection from the elements and shock while
       monitoring the progression of the simulation

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The Triage Training System is a simple, cost effective way to train first responders in more realistic
scenarios than are currently possible. The Acting Coach quickly gives the actors (playing the victims) the
ability to convincingly play their parts without having to spend hours going through training and trying
to remember their symptoms or to have specialized medical knowledge. All they have to do is wear the
Acting Coach and follow the verbal instructions given to them via the inconspicuous ear bud. They no
longer have to break character and read “cheat sheets” or guess.

In addition, the Coordinator’s Tablet allows the coordinator to walk covertly throughout the scenario,
monitoring and recording the progress of the medics and secretly advance the scenario without having
to resort to announcing everything through a radio or loud speaker, breaking the realism of the
scenario. Future iterations of the Acting Coach could include functional wounds with realistic bleeding
and the Coordinator’s Tablet could be easily equipped to trigger environmental events such as simulated

Both the Acting Coach and Coordinator’s Tablet are built using off-the-shelf technology. By utilizing
existing hardware this eliminates large amounts of development time and other costs associated with
custom hardware solutions.


Contact information:

David Dorhout
(Please see website for links to videos, schematics, source code, and more pictures)

Cover Photo Model Credit: Specialist Micah Morgan


Triage Training System- Outside:

Triage Training System with Acting Coach Audio:

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Acting Coach text

Creative Commons 3.0 as required by the MicroMedic Contest rules

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