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caspar(7) MISCELLANEOUS caspar(7)

caspar - Makefile snippets for common tasks

In a Makefile, write either

include caspar/mk/


include caspar/mk/


include caspar/mk/


Caspar offers Makefile snippets for common tasks, like installing (configuration) files, or typesetting LaTeX, DocBook XML and DocBook SGML documents.

The typesetting functionality is delivered by and This is documented in caspar-typesetting(7).

The installing-stuff functionality is delivered by (That's what the rest of the manual will talk about.) It enables one to run 'make install' from within a tree which typically holds configuration files, managed using Subversion (or git or any other version control system, for that matter).

It is useful in cases like this: all configuration files of some host are under version control, and, after commiting a change to CVS, you want to be able to easily install the new configuration file on the host.

With caspar, all you have to do is specify the hostname in one place, and specify the name of the target directory in each CVS directory.

It is comparable with other tools for Unix system administrators like puppet and cfengine. Main difference: the caspar code consists of less than 100 lines of GNU Make.

Within a CVS tree, create a file include/, with contents like e.g.

csp_UHOST =
include caspar/mk/

. Within each other directory of the CVS tree which holds files, create a Makefile, which looks like e.g.

csp_DIR = /some/dir/ectory/
include ../../include/

. If you'd like to use the install-recursive target too, in directories which hold subdirectories (but not files), you'll have to create a Makefile which looks something like

include ../../include/

. From within the CVS tree, one can call:

make <filename>-diff
make <filename>-install
make diff
make install
make load
make install-recursive

Calling make <filename>-diff shows the diff between the local file and the file as currently installed on the remote location. Calling make install (or make) now will scp all files in the current directory to the remote location. The install-recursive target descends down the tree, and calls make install in each subdirectory.

Of course, you'll have to be able to ssh directly as root to the remote host to get this working (if you'd like to use csp_UHOST = If you don't like this, and would like to have a PermitRootLogin no in your /etc/ssh/sshd_config, you can use csp_sucp(1). See below.

The variables one can set in a calling Makefile are:

user@host, reachable using $(csp_PUSH) (which is scp by default)

space separated list of user@host items, reachable using $(csp_PUSH)

directory on host, reachable using function $(csp_PUSH)

make function for pushing files to remote location. Usually, this is a wrapper around a script or program. The function will be passed 4 arguments: [user@]host, remote directory and local filename. [user@]host will be set to all elements of $(csp_UHOSTS); directory will be set to $(csp_DIR). Currently, $(csp_scp_FUNC), $(csp_cp_FUNC) and $(csp_sucp_FUNC) are supported as push plugins. If csp_PUSH is unset, the default $(csp_scp_FUNC) is used.

the `load' target depends upon these targets.

the `build' target depends upon these targets.

cp binary, just "cp" by default

scp binary, just "scp" by default

script wrapping sudo in ssh, "csp_sucp" by default

extra files which should be installed. Can be used to include files starting with a dot.

files which should never be installed. Set to Makefile .%.swp %~ #%# pod2htmd.tmp pod2htmi.tmp by default.

extra files which should never be installed; added to list in csp_TABOOFILES.

files which should be installed, even if in initial csp_TABOOFILES list. Removed from csp_TABOOFILES list.

directories to exclude in install-recursive target. set to CVS .svn by default.

see csp_TABOOFILES equivalents.

override csp_UHOSTS: don't push to csp_UHOSTS, but to the intersection of this space separated list of user@host items and csp_UHOSTS.

The following variables might get phased out or removed soonish:

extra arguments to pass to cp invocation, none by default

extra arguments to pass to scp invocation, e.g. '-i .ssh/id_rsa-root'

Some examples:

Using csp_UHOST
This is the simplest way to use caspar. Makefile is

csp_UHOST =
csp_DIR = /etc/
include caspar/mk/

Now, running "make" will scp all files in the current directory to

More hosts, not scp but sudo via ssh: using csp_PUSH
Makefile is

csp_UHOSTS =
csp_PUSH = $(csp_sucp_FUNC)
csp_DIR = /etc/
include caspar/mk/

Now, running "make" will use csp_sucp(1) to install all files in the current directory to both and If a file named fstab is present in the current directory, running "make fstab-install" will just install that one file. If you need to sudo(1) to another user on the remote host, add something like

csp_XARG = postgres

. (If such a username is not supplied, sudo (and csp_sucp) use the default: root.)

Overriding csp_UHOSTS: csp_UHOSTS_SKIP
If one or some of your hosts are temporarily unavailable, and you'd like to push your files to the hosts which are alive, you can temporarily override your csp_UHOSTS. E.g., when is not available:

% cat Makefile
csp_UHOSTS =
csp_DIR = /etc/
include caspar/mk/
% make install
scp hosts
scp fstab

Overriding csp_UHOSTS in a smart way: csp_UHOSTS_SUBSET. Using multiple groups of hosts. Recursive make made easy.
If you have lots of subdirectories holding information for lots of groups of hosts, while this run you just want to install for a small group (or 1) hosts, csp_UHOSTS_SUBSET is useful. Suppose your casparized tree looks like


The file apache/etc/apache2/Makefile is:

csp_DIR = /etc/apache2/
include ../../include/

(all other Makefiles are similar). The file apache/include/ is

csp_UHOSTS = root@a root@b
include caspar/mk/

The file php/include/ is the same. The files grub/include/ and logrotate/include/ are

csp_UHOSTS = root@d root@e root@f root@g
include caspar/mk/

The file nrpe/include/ is

csp_UHOSTS = root@d root@e root@f root@n
include caspar/mk/

The toplevel Makefile is

dirs = $(patsubst %/Makefile,%,$(shell find * -mindepth 1
-name Makefile))
for i in $(dirs); do $(MAKE) -$(MAKEFLAGS) -C $$i; done
for i in $(dirs); do $(MAKE) -$(MAKEFLAGS) -C $$i install; done
for i in $(dirs); do $(MAKE) -$(MAKEFLAGS) -C $$i load; done

(we don't feel like sticking a Makefile in all non-leaf nodes of our tree).

Now, when running "csp_UHOSTS_SUBSET='root@e root@f root@m root@n' make" in the toplevel, caspar just takes the intersection of csp_UHOSTS_SUBSET and csp_UHOSTS for each csp_UHOSTS list. So, caspar will not push anything for apache/ and php/. The files grub/boot/grub/menu.lst and logrotate/etc/logrotate.conf will get pushed to root@e and root@f only. The file nrpe/debian/etc/default/nagios-nrpe-server will get pushed to root@e, root@f and root@n.

This is often better than just overriding csp_UHOSTS on the commandline (or in your shell's environment): if the intersection of the original csp_UHOSTS and your new csp_UHOSTS is empty, chances are big you've just forgotten to clean your environment.

Creating remote directories if needed
Makefile is

csp_DIR = /some/dir/ectory/
csp_PUSH = $(csp_scpmkdir_FUNC)
csp_UHOST =
include caspar/mk/

Now, before calling scp, caspar will run 'mkdir -p' to create any missing remote directories.

Using csp_CP and csp_LOAD
username/etc/Makefile is

csp_UHOST = dummy
csp_PUSH = $(csp_cp_FUNC)
csp_DIR = $(HOME)/etc/
csp_LOAD = crontab-load
include ../include/
crontab-load = crontab $(csp_DIR)/crontab

while ../include/ is just

include caspar/mk/

. Setting csp_PUSH to $(csp_cp_FUNC) causes cp(1) to get executed by "make install" (not scp(1)). Setting csp_LOAD causes "make load" to execute the crontab command. Just running "make" is OK too, since "make" calls both "make install" and "make load".

Using csp_DIR, csp_LOAD and install(1)
To install a file on the local host, create e.g. a file etc/uruk/Makefile like:

csp_UHOST = dummy
csp_DIR = /etc/uruk/
csp_PUSH = $(csp_install_FUNC)
csp_LOAD = uruk-load
include caspar/mk/
uruk-load = sudo invoke-rc.d uruk force-reload

Using csp_DIR and csp_LOAD, take 2
etc/Makefile is

csp_DIR = /etc/
csp_LOAD = aliases-load
include ../include/
aliases-load = $(csp_SSH) $1 "cd /etc && postalias aliases; postfix reload"

while ../include/ is

csp_UHOST =
include caspar/mk/

Building files locally
Note: csp_BUILD is deprecated. You should not use it. If you'd like to build some files locally from local sources, before installing the just built files, do e.g.:

csp_UHOST =
csp_DIR = /etc/
csp_EXTRAFILES = sshd_config
csp_TABOOFILES_ADD = sshd_config.m4
include caspar/mk/
sshd_config: sshd_config.m4
m4 $< > $@

List all source files in csp_TABOOFILES_ADD: this way, they won't get installed on the csp_UHOST.

Using csp_sucp_FUNC and csp_LOAD
If you'd like to use csp_sucp and want a `load' target, do something like:

csp_PUSH = $(csp_sucp_FUNC)
csp_UHOST =
csp_DIR = /etc/uruk/
csp_LOAD = rc-load
include caspar/mk/
rc-load = $(csp_SSH) $1 sudo invoke-rc.d uruk force-reload

15 мар 2018 caspar 20180315